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Canto 5

Hari Harye Namah

 


Chapter 20: The Structure of the Different Dvīpas and the Prayers by their Different People

(1) S'rī S'uka said: 'Let me now describe the dimensions, characteristics and form of the divisions of Plaksha and the other dvīpas that are called varshas [or lands, see 5.1: 32]. (2) The way Mount Meru is surrounded by the dvīpa of Jambū, that dvīpa in its turn is [as seen from the inside] surrounded by a salty ocean that is just as wide. That ocean is surrounded, like a moat by a park, by the dvīpa of Plaksha that stretches out twice as much. It was named after the plaksha tree that is as tall as a jambū but twice as wide. At the root of that tree, which rises magnificently splendorous, there is a fire that counts seven flames. The master of that dvīpa is the son of Priyavrata named Idhmajihva. When he retired for the yoga of self-realization he divided the dvīpa into seven varshas that he named after his seven sons. (3-4) S'iva, Yavasa, Subhadra, S'ānta, Kshema, Amrita and Abhaya, are thus the varshas. They have seven rivers and mountains. The seven mountain ranges marking the varshas are known as Manikūtha, Vajrakūtha, Indrasena, Jyotishmān, Suparna, Hiranyashthhīva and Meghamāla. The main rivers are the Arunā, Nrimnā, Āngirasī, Sāvitrī, Suptabhātā, Ritambharā and Satyambharā. Touching their water washes away the passion and darkness of the four types of men whom one there [according to their vocations] calls the Hamsas, Patangas, Ūrdhvāyanas and Satyāngas [the swanlike ones, the rulers, the ambitious ones and the faithful ones: the varnas]. For a thousand years they live there like gods with the most beautiful bodies, having children and performing Vedic rituals at the gate to heaven. They worship the Supreme Lord, the Supersoul in the form of the sun god the way it is prescribed in the holy scriptures praying: (5) 'Let us take to the shelter of Sūrya, the god of the sun who is a manifestation of Lord Vishnu, the authentic Soul of the Absolute Truth, of righteousness, of Brahman and of eternal life and death.' 

(6) In Plaksha and the other four dvīpas the people are without exception born with the perfections of a long life, good sense, bodily and mental fortitude, physical power, intelligence and bravery. (7) Surrounded by an ocean of sugarcane juice equally wide, there is beyond Plaksha dvīpa another dvīpa called S'ālmala that is twice as big and surrounded by an ocean of liquor [or wine; surā*]. (8) That dvīpa received its name from a s'ālmalī tree as big as the plaksha tree and in that tree, so one says, Garuda, the carrier bird of Vedic prayers unto Lord Vishnu, has his residence. (9) The son of Priyavrata called Yajńabāhu is the master of that dvīpa. He divided it into seven varshas according to the seven names of his sons: Surocana, Saumanasya, Ramanaka, Deva-varsha, Pāribhadra, Āpyāyana and Avijńāta. (10) The seven mountains there are known by the names of Svarasa, S'atas'ringa, Vāmadeva, Kunda, Mukunda, Pushpa-varsha and the Sahasra-s'ruti. The seven rivers are the Anumati, Sinīvālī, Sarasvatī, Kuhū, Rajanī, Nandā and Rākā. (11) The people living in those varshas are known as the S'rutadharas, Vīryadharas, Vasundharas and Ishandharas [those who  listen, are heroic, are wealthy and are obedient, another expression of the varnas]. Fully conversant with the Vedic knowledge they worship the Supreme Lord in the form of Soma-ātmā ['the true self of the sacrificial beverage' or the moon god]: (12) 'With his effulgence he divides the time in the light and dark period of the month [s'ukla and krishna]. May he, that divinity of the moon and the grain to be distributed to the forefathers and the demigods, may that king of all people, remain favorably disposed unto us.'

(13) Next there is outside of that ocean the dJambhudvipavīpa called Kus'a that, like the dvīpa mentioned before, is twice as big and surrounded by an ocean of ghee that is equally wide. The kus'a grass created by God gave that dvīpa its name because all directions are illumined by the effulgence of the young sprouting grass that glows like another kind of fire. (14) The son of Mahārāja Priyavrata called Hiranyaretā, oh King, divided as the master of that island, when he retired for his penance, his dvīpa among his seven sons with the names of Vasu, Vasudāna, Dridharuci, Nābhigupta, Stutyavrata, Vivikta and Vāmadeva. (15) The seven mountain ranges of these varshas are called the Cakra, Catuhs'ringa, Kapila, Citrakūtha, Devānīka, Ūrdhvaromā and Dravina mountains and the rivers are the Ramakulyā, Madhukulyā, Mitravindā, Srutavindā, Devagarbhā, Ghritacyutā and Mantramālā. (16) At those waters the inhabitants of Kus'advīpa who are named the Kus'alas, Kovidas, Abhiyuktas and Kulakas [or the grass sitters, the experienced ones, the competitors and the artisans], skilled in the rituals, worship the Supreme Lord in the form of the fire god called Jātaveda ['he who awards the wages']: (17) 'Of all the demigods of the Supreme Brahman who constitute the limbs of the Original Person, you, oh god of the fire, are the one who  personally carries the offerings of ghee and grains [to the Lord]. [Please accept] therefore our sacrifice for the Supreme Personality of Godhead.'

(18) Just as Kus'advīpa is surrounded by an ocean of ghee, Krauńcadvīpa outside of it and being twice as big, is surrounded by an ocean of milk [or plant juice] of the same size. The king of the mountains named Krauńca situated there gave that dvīpa its name. (19) Even though Guha [the son of S'iva, Kārttikeya] destroyed the vegetation there with his weapons, it [the mountain] stands unafraid because it constantly bathes in the ocean of milk and enjoys the protection of the mighty Varuna [the demigod of the seas]. (20) Ghritaprishthha, the son of Mahārāja Priyavrata, the ruler of that dvīpa, gave its seven sections, its varshas, the names of his sons whom he, all just as powerful as he was, appointed as their rulers. He thereafter resorted to the lotus feet of the Supreme Lord Hari, the Soul of all souls whose glories are so auspicious. (21) Āma, Madhuruha, Meghaprishthha, Sudhāmā, Bhrājishthha, Lohitārna and Vanaspati were the sons of Ghritaprishthha and the seven mountain ranges were celebrated as the S'ukla and Vardhamāna, Bhojana, Upabarhina, Nanda, Nandana and Sarvatobhadra mountains. The seven rivers were the Abhayā, Amritaughā, Āryakā, Tīrthavatī, Rūpavatī, Pavitravatī and the S'uklā. (22) Sanctified by bathing in the pellucid waters of all those rivers the inhabitants of those varshas, who are called the Purushas, the Rishabas, the Dravinas and the Devakas [or the authentic, the superior, the wealthy and the sporting ones], worship with folded hands filled with water [the Lord in the form of Varuna] the deity of water: (23) 'Oh water, oh might of the Original Personality, you sanctify the earth, its life, its paradise. May our touching this water, which because of its nature destroys the spirit of evil, purify our bodies.'

(24) Beyond the ocean of milk the dvīpa of S'āka is situated measuring a 3.2 million yojanas wide. It is surrounded by an ocean of whey of the same width and owes its name to a most fragrant fig tree that can be smelled all over the dvīpa. (25) Another son of Priyavrata named Medhātithi is the ruler there. He also divided his dvīpa in seven varshas with the names of his seven sons Purojava, Manojava, Pavamāna, Dhūmrānīka, Citrarepha, Bahurūpa and Vis'vadhāra, whom he appointed there as their rulers. He thereafter entered the forest for penance with his mind absorbed in the infinity of the Supreme Lord. (26) The seven mountains forming the borders of the varshas are the Īs'āna, Urus'ringa, Balabhadra, S'atakesara, Sahasra-srota, Devapāla and Mahānasa mountains and the seven rivers there are the Anaghā, Āyurdā, Ubhayasprishthi, Aparājitā, Pańcapadī, Sahasra-s'ruti and the Nijadhriti. (27) The people of those varshas, the Ritavratas, the Satyavratas, the Dānavratas and the Anuvratas [the varnas of the God-fearing souls, those vowed to the truth, the providers, and the followers] cleanse themselves of their passion and ignorance with the practice of regulating their breath that is ruled by the demigod Vāyu. Absorbed in transcendence, they worship him as the representative of the Supreme Personality with: (28) 'You, entering all living beings, are the one Supersoul within, the direct controller who maintains by the functions of the inner airs. Please direct us, for you control the entire cosmos.'

(29)
Also beyond this ocean of whey there is another dvīpa named Pushkara that is twice as big as the previous one and is surrounded by an ocean of sweet water of the same size. There a very big lotus flower is found with 100 million flower petals of pure gold that are like the flames of a blazing fire. This lotus is considered the sitting place of the all-powerful Lord of the Lotus [Brahmā]. (30) That dvīpa has one mountain [range] named Mānasottara that separates the varshas on the inner and the outer side. Measuring a 10.000 yojanas high and wide, it harbors in its four directions the cities of the four demigods ruling there [Indra, Yama, Varuna and Soma]. The chariot of the sun god Sūrya, circumambulating mount Meru on its highest point, moves around in an orbit that, calculated in terms of the days and nights of the demigods [**], consists of one complete year. (31) The ruler of that dvīpa, also a son of Priyavrata with the name Vītihotra, named the two varshas there after his two sons Ramanaka and Dhātaki and appointed them as their rulers when he, just as his other brothers did, restricted himself to virtuous activities to satisfy the Supreme Lord. (32) The people of those lands worship, for the fulfillment of their desires, with ritualistic activities the Supreme Lord in the form of Lord Brahmā and pray the following: (33) 'Someone firmly convinced of the One Supreme must, in the form of [favorable] actions [rituals, good deeds], be of worship for the appearance of Him [as Lord Brahmā] who, free from duplicity and peacefully, discloses the supreme Brahman. That almighty Lord we offer our obeisances.'

(34) Beyond that realm there is [outside of the ocean of sweet water] all around a formation named Lokāloka that is described as the boundary between the world of light and the world without light. (35) The realm [called Loka-varsha within that border] is as wide as the area between mount Meru and the Mānasottara range, [and changes outside into] another domain made of gold [called Aloka-varsha, the dark region] that is as smooth as a mirror. Anything dropped there can impossibly be retrieved and therefore the place is avoided by all living entities. (36) The formation Lokāloka [that is the outer shell of the universe] is situated in between the lands that one speaks of as being inhabited and not inhabited. (37) For the rays of all the luminaries on this side - from the sun up to those of Dhruva's goal of liberation [the center of the universe, see 4.12: 12] -, it is not possible to reach beyond that outer limit of the three worlds, that was created all around by the Lord. (38) The scholars who investigated the positions, characteristics and situations of all the worlds [the planets and stars], calculated that the area between the centre and the outer Lokāloka limit of the universe covers as much as half a billion yojanas, one quarter [of the diameter] of the celestial globe.

(39) By the source of the self who is the spiritual teacher of the entire universe [Brahmā] the four gaja-patis ['the best of all elephants'] Rishabha, Pushkaracūda, Vāmana and Aparājit are established in the four directions on top of that [formation], in order to take care of the stability of the different planets in the universe. (40) He [Lord Vishnu] is of all His locally ruling, personal divinities [His 'elephants'] and all the types of heroes who are expansions of His potency, the Supreme Lord, the foremost and greatest personality, the great master of all powers, the Soul of all souls and the True Self of the purest goodness characterized by religion, spiritual knowledge, detachment, all opulence and the eight great perfections [see 3.15: 45]. Decorated by the different weapons held up by His stout arms and surrounded by expansions like Vishvaksena and other representatives and eminent associates, He, for the benefit of all worlds, manifests His form on all sides of that greatest of all mountains. (41) For the duration of a kalpa the Supreme Lord assumes that appearance just to maintain the life in the different worlds that He evolved on the basis of His outer potency. (42) About the area beyond the [uninhabitable, dark] realm [of Aloka-varsha], which stretches outside of Lokāloka as far as the width of the area inside, one says that it is the destination for those who free from all contamination walk the path of the Lord of Yoga.

(43) In the center of the universe the suns are found situated between heaven and earth. That sunny globe in the middle consists of a quarter of a billion stars. (44) Because of having entered the lifeless form of this globe at its time of creation, he [Brahmā] is known as Mārtanda ['the god of the suns']. The designation known as Hiranyagarbha ['the gold inside'] came about because he received his body from that [golden splendor]. (45) Because of the sun [of the sun god Sūrya] we are able to divide the directions, the ether, the planets above and the worlds below, as also all the heavenly abodes, the abodes for liberation and the hellish places such as Atala. (46) The sun god is the controller of all sorts of living beings, he is the life, soul and vision of the gods, the lower animals, the human beings, the plants, the trees and everything crawling and creeping.'

 

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Third revised edition, loaded June 17, 2018.

 

 

 

 

Previous Aadhar edition and Vedabase links:

Text 1

S'rī S'uka said: 'Let me now describe the dimensions, characteristics and form of the divisions of Plaksha and the other dvīpas that are called varshas [or lands, see 5.1: 32]
S'rī S'uka said: 'Next I shall describe the subsections, dimensions, characteristics and form of the dvīpa ['separated area' like continent and island or also belt] named Plaksha and the others [see 5.1: 32].  (Vedabase)

 

Text 2

The way Mount Meru is surrounded by the dvīpa of Jambū, that dvīpa in its turn is [as seen from the inside] surrounded by a salty ocean that is just as wide. That ocean is surrounded, like a moat by a park, by the dvīpa of Plaksha that stretches out twice as much. It was named after the plaksha tree that is as tall as a jambū but twice as wide. At the root of that tree, which rises magnificently splendorous, there is a fire that counts seven flames. The master of that dvīpa is the son of Priyavrata named Idhmajihva. When he retired for the yoga of self-realization he divided the dvīpa into seven varshas that he named after his seven sons.

Like Mount Meru is surrounded by the dvīpa of Jambū is it itself [seen from the inside] surrounded by a salty ocean that is just as wide. Beyond that is it, like a moat outside a park, surrounded by the dvīpa of Plaksha that, named after a plaksha tree as tall as a jambū, is stretching twice as wide. At that tree, rising magnificently splendorous, there is a fire found counting seven flames. The master of that dvīpa is the son of Priyavrata named Idhmajihva, who divided his own dvīpa into seven varshas [lands] whom he named after his seven sons when he himself retired for the yoga of self-realization. (Vedabase)

 

Text 3-4

S'iva, Yavasa, Subhadra, S'ānta, Kshema, Amrita and Abhaya are thus the varshas. They have seven rivers and mountains. The seven mountain ranges marking the varshas are known as Manikūtha, Vajrakūtha, Indrasena, Jyotishmān, Suparna, Hiranyashthhīva and Meghamāla. The main rivers are the Arunā, Nrimnā, Āngirasī, Sāvitrī, Suptabhātā, Ritambharā and Satyambharā. Touching their water washes away the passion and darkness of the four types of men whom one there [according to their vocations] calls the Hamsas, Patangas, Ūrdhvāyanas and Satyāngas [the swanlike ones, the rulers, the ambitious ones and the faithful ones: the varnas]. For a thousand years they live there like gods with the most beautiful bodies, having children and performing Vedic rituals at the gate to heaven. They worship the Supreme Lord, the Supersoul in the form of the sun god the way it is prescribed in the holy scriptures praying:

S'iva, Yavasa, Subhadra, S'ānta, Kshema, Amrita and Abhaya, are thus the varshas to the different rivers and mountains. The seven mountain ranges marking the varshas are known as Manikūtha, Vajrakūtha, Indrasena, Jyotishmān, Suparna, Hiranyashthhīva and Meghamāla. The Arunā, Nrimnā, Āngirasī, Sāvitrī, Suptabhātā, Ritambharā and the Satyambharā are likewise the main rivers. Touching their water washes away the passion and darkness of the four types of men there called the Hamsas, Patangas, Ūrdhvāyanas and Satyāngas [the swanlike, the rulers, the ambitious, and the faithful; other names for the varnas or vocations]. For a thousand years they live there like gods with most beautiful bodies, having children and performing vedic rituals at the gate to heaven, glorifying the Supreme Lord as the Supersoul of the sun-god by hymn, sacrifice and song: (Vedabase)

 

Text 5

'Let us take to the shelter of Sūrya, the god of the sun who is a manifestation of Lord Vishnu, the authentic Soul of the Absolute Truth, of righteousness, of Brahman and of eternal life and death.' 

'Let us seek shelter with Lord Vishnu, the Soul of all souls who is the most authentic form of the Absolute Truth, of the religion, of Brahman, of the nectar [of eternal life] and of death, as well as of Sūrya, the God of the Sun.' (Vedabase)

  

Text 6

In Plaksha and the other four dvīpas the people are without exception born with the perfections of a long life, good sense, bodily and mental fortitude, physical power, intelligence and bravery.

From Plaksha on are on the five dvīpas the people existing there without exception born with the perfections of a long life, good sense, bodily and mental fortitude, physical power, intelligence and bravery. (Vedabase)

  

Text 7

Surrounded by an ocean of sugarcane juice equally wide, there is beyond Plaksha dvīpa another dvīpa called S'ālmala that is twice as big and surrounded by an ocean of liquor [or wine; surā*].

Surrounded by an ocean of sugarcane juice measuring as wide, is there beyond Plakshadvīpa another dvīpa known as S'ālmala, that, being equally wide, is twice as big and is surrounded by an ocean of liquor [or wine; surā, see footnote].  (Vedabase)

 

Text 8

That dvīpa received its name from a s'ālmalī tree as big as the plaksha tree and in that tree, so one says, Garuda, the carrier bird of Vedic prayers unto Lord Vishnu, has his residence.

That dvīpa has its name from a s'ālmalī tree as big as the plaksha tree and in it has, so one says, Garuda the carrier bird of vedic prayers unto Lord Vishnu, his residence. (Vedabase)

 

Text 9

The son of Priyavrata called Yajńabāhu is the master of that dvīpa. He divided it into seven varshas according to the seven names of his sons: Surocana, Saumanasya, Ramanaka, Deva-varsha, Pāribhadra, Āpyāyana and Avijńāta.

The master of that dvīpa is the son of Priyavrata called Yajńabāhu. He divided it into seven varshas according the seven names of his sons: Surocana, Saumanasya, Ramanaka, Deva-varsha, Pāribhadra, Āpyāyana and Avijńāta. (Vedabase)

 

Text 10

The seven mountains there are known by the names of Svarasa, S'atas'ringa, Vāmadeva, Kunda, Mukunda, Pushpa-varsha and the Sahasra-s'ruti. The seven rivers are the Anumati, Sinīvālī, Sarasvatī, Kuhū, Rajanī, Nandā and Rākā.

The seven mountains and main-rivers there are known to be the Svarasa, S'ata-s'ringa, Vāmadeva, Kunda, Mukunda, Pushpa-varsha and the Sahasra-s'ruti mountains, and the river Anumati, Sinīvālī, Sarasvatī, Kuhū, Rajanī, Nandā and Rākā. (Vedabase)

 

Text 11

The people living in those varshas are known as the S'rutadharas, Vīryadharas, Vasundharas and Ishandharas [those who  listen, are heroic, are wealthy and are obedient, another expression of the varnas]. Fully conversant with the Vedic knowledge they worship the Supreme Lord in the form of Soma-ātmā ['the true self of the sacrificial beverage' or the moon god]:

The people living in those varshas are known as the S'rutadharas, Vīryadharas, Vasundharas and Ishandharas [another description of the varnas meaning those who are of listening, of the heroic, of wealth, and of obedience]; fully conversant with the vedic worship they the Supreme Lord as Soma-ātmā ['the true self of the sacrificial beverage' or the moon-god]: (Vedabase)

 

Text 12

'With his effulgence he divides the time in the light and dark period of the month [s'ukla and krishna]. May he, that divinity of the moon and the grain to be distributed to the forefathers and the demigods, may that king of all people, remain favorably disposed unto us.'

'By His own effulgence divides He the time into the light and dark period of the month [s'ukla and krishna]; may He, that divinity of the moon as well as of the grain to be distributed to the forefathers and the gods, that King of All People, remain favorable towards us.' (Vedabase)

 

Text 13

Next there is outside of that ocean the dvīpa called Kus'a that, like the dvīpa mentioned before, is twice as big and surrounded by an ocean of ghee that is equally wide. The kus'a grass created by God gave that dvīpa its name because all directions are illumined by the effulgence of the young sprouting grass that glows like another kind of fire.
Following outside of that ocean of liquor is there equally wide and twice as big, a sea of ghee that, like with the dvīpa before, surrounds Kus'advīpa, of which the kus'a-grass created by God gave that dvīpa its name; like another kind of fire are by the effulgence of the young sprouting grass all directions illumined.  (Vedabase)

 

Text 14

The son of Mahārāja Priyavrata called Hiranyaretā, oh King, divided as the master of that island, when he retired for his penance, his dvīpa among his seven sons with the names of Vasu, Vasudāna, Dridharuci, Nābhigupta, Stutyavrata, Vivikta and Vāmadeva.

The master of that island, Hiranyaretā, the son of Mahārāja Priyavrata, o King, divided his dvīpa in seven and gave them, when he withdrew himself for his penance, according to his sons, the names of Vasu,Vasudāna, Dridharuci, Nābhigupta, Stutyavrata, Vivikta and Vāmadeva. (Vedabase)

 

Text 15

The seven mountain ranges of these varshas are called the Cakra, Catuhs'ringa, Kapila, Citrakūtha, Devānīka, Ūrdhvaromā and Dravina mountains and the rivers are the Ramakulyā, Madhukulyā, Mitravindā, Srutavindā, Devagarbhā, Ghritacyutā and Mantramālā.

The seven mountain ranges and seven rivers of them are the Cakra, Catuh-s'ringa, Kapila, Citrakūtha, Devānīka, Ūrdhvaromā and Dravina mountains and the rivers Ramakulyā, Madhukulyā, Mitravindā, Srutavindā, Devagarbhā, Ghritacyutā and Mantramālā. (Vedabase)

 

Text 16

At those waters the inhabitants of Kus'advīpa who are named the Kus'alas, Kovidas, Abhiyuktas and Kulakas [or the grass sitters, the experienced ones, the competitors and the artisans], skilled in the rituals, worship the Supreme Lord in the form of the fire god called Jātaveda ['he who awards the wages']:

By those waters do the inhabitants of Kus'advīpa called the Kus'alas, Kovidas, Abhiyuktas and Kulakas [or the grass-sitters, the experienced, the competitors and the artisans], proficient in the rituals, worship the Supreme Lord in the form of the God of Fire called Jātaveda ['he who awards the wages']: (Vedabase)

 

Text 17

'Of all the demigods of the Supreme Brahman who constitute the limbs of the Original Person, you, oh god of the fire, are the one who  personally carries the offerings of ghee and grains [to the Lord]. [Please accept] therefore our sacrifice for the Supreme Personality of Godhead.'

'Of all the demigods of the Supreme Brahman who are the limbs of the Original Person are You the Granter of Wages, who is directly carrying the offerings of ghee and grains; please carry therefore the offerings by our sacrifices unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead.' (Vedabase)

 

Text 18

Just as Kus'advīpa is surrounded by an ocean of ghee, Krauńcadvīpa outside of it and being twice as big, is surrounded by an ocean of milk [or plant juice] of the same size. The king of the mountains named Krauńca situated there gave that dvīpa its name.

So is, just as Kus'advīpa is surrounded, also Krauńcadvīpa all around, outside of the ocean of ghee, surrounded by an ocean of milk [or plant-juice], evenly wide and twice as big, in which the king of the mountains named Krauńca is found that gave that dvīpa its name. (Vedabase)

 

Text 19

Even though Guha [the son of S'iva, Kārttikeya] destroyed the vegetation there with his weapons, it [the mountain] stands unafraid because it constantly bathes in the ocean of milk and enjoys the protection of the mighty Varuna [the demigod of the seas].

Although its vegetation was ruffed by the weapons of the son of S'iva [Kārttikeya], has it become fearless from always bathing in the ocean of milk and from the protection by the mighty Varuna [the demigod of the seas]. (Vedabase)

 

Text 20

Ghritaprishthha, the son of Mahārāja Priyavrata, the ruler of that dvīpa, gave its seven sections, its varshas, the names of his sons whom he, all just as powerful as he was, appointed as their rulers. He thereafter resorted to the lotus feet of the Supreme Lord Hari, the Soul of all souls whose glories are so auspicious.

Ghritaprishthha, the son of Mahārāja Priyavrata, ruler on that dvīpa gave the divisions of his own land in seven varshas the names of his sons, who were all as powerful as he was, and appointed each of them as the master of the varsha. Next took he himself shelter of the lotus feet of the Supreme Lord Hari, the soul of all souls whose glories are so auspicious. (Vedabase)

 

Text 21

Āma, Madhuruha, Meghaprishthha, Sudhāmā, Bhrājishthha, Lohitārna and Vanaspati were the sons of Ghritaprishthha and the seven mountain ranges were celebrated as the S'ukla and Vardhamāna, Bhojana, Upabarhina, Nanda, Nandana and Sarvatobhadra mountains. The seven rivers were the Abhayā, Amritaughā, Āryakā, Tīrthavatī, Rūpavatī, Pavitravatī and the S'uklā.

Āma, Madhuruha, Meghaprishthha, Sudhāmā, Bhrājishthha, Lohitārna and Vanaspati were the sons of Ghritaprishthha and the seven mountain ranges and seven rivers were celebrated as the S'ukla and Vardhamāna, Bhojana, Upabarhina, Nanda, Nandana and Sarvatobhadra mountains and the river the Abhayā, Amritaughā, Āryakā, Tīrthavatī, Rūpavatī, Pavitravatī and the S'uklā. (Vedabase)

 

Text 22

Sanctified by bathing in the pellucid waters of all those rivers the inhabitants of those varshas, who are called the Purushas, the Rishabas, the Dravinas and the Devakas [or the authentic, the superior, the wealthy and the sporting ones], worship with folded hands filled with water [the Lord in the form of Varuna] the deity of water:

Sanctified by using the pellucid waters of all those rivers do the inhabitants of those varshas called the Purushas, the Rishabas, the Dravinas and the Devakas [or the authentic, the superior, the wealthy, and the sporting ones], worship with folded palms full of water, God in the form of water: (Vedabase)

 

Text 23

'Oh water, oh might of the Original Personality, you sanctify the earth, its life, its paradise. May our touching this water, which because of its nature destroys the spirit of evil, purify our bodies.'

'O water, might of the Original Personality, you sanctify the earth, its life, its paradise; may our touching of that what by its nature destroys the spirit of evil, purify our bodies.' (Vedabase)

  

Text 24

Beyond the ocean of milk the dvīpa of S'āka is situated measuring a 3.2 million yojanas wide. It is surrounded by an ocean of whey of the same width and owes its name to a most fragrant fig tree that can be smelled all over the dvīpa.

Consequently is, situated beyond the ocean of milk, found the dvīpa of S'āka measuring a 3.2 million yojanas as long as it is wide; it is surrounded by an ocean of whey and it owes its name to an indeed very fragrant fig tree which makes the whole dvīpa smell aromatic. (Vedabase)

  

Text 25

Another son of Priyavrata named Medhātithi is the ruler there. He also divided his dvīpa in seven varshas with the names of his seven sons Purojava, Manojava, Pavamāna, Dhūmrānīka, Citrarepha, Bahurūpa and Vis'vadhāra, whom he appointed there as their rulers. He thereafter entered the forest for penance with his mind absorbed in the infinity of the Supreme Lord.

The ruler there, another son of Priyavrata named Medhātithi also divided the dvīpa in seven varshas to the names of his seven sons Purojava, Manojava, Pavamāna, Dhūmrānīka, Citrarepha, Bahurūpa and Vis'vadhāra, who he appointed there to be their rulers. After doing so entered he the forest of penance, with his mind absorbed in the unlimited of the Supreme Lord. (Vedabase)

 

Text 26

The seven mountains forming the borders of the varshas are the Īs'āna, Urus'ringa, Balabhadra, S'atakesara, Sahasra-srota, Devapāla and Mahānasa mountains and the seven rivers there are the Anaghā, Āyurdā, Ubhayasprishthi, Aparājitā, Pańcapadī, Sahasra-s'ruti and the Nijadhriti.

The mountains and rivers forming the borders of the varshas are the Īs'āna, Urus'ringa, Balabhadra, S'atakesara, Sahasra-srota, Devapāla and Mahānasa mountains and the rivers the Anaghā, Āyurdā, Ubhayasprishthi, Aparājitā, Pańcapadī, Sahasra-s'ruti and the Nijadhriti. (Vedabase)

 

Text 27

The people of those varshas, the Ritavratas, the Satyavratas, the Dānavratas and the Anuvratas [the varnas of the God-fearing souls, those vowed to the truth, the providers, and the followers] cleanse themselves of their passion and ignorance with the practice of regulating their breath that is ruled by the demigod Vāyu. Absorbed in transcendence, they worship him as the representative of the Supreme Personality with:

The people of those varshas, the Ritavratas, the Satyavratas, the Dānavratas and the Anuvratas [the varnas of the godfearing and the ones vowed to the truth, to providing, and to following] have themselves cleansed of their passions and ignorance by the practice of regulating the breath that is ruled by the demigod Vāyu, whom they worship in transcendental absorption:  (Vedabase)

 

Text 28

'You, entering all living beings, are the one Supersoul within, the direct controller who maintains by the functions of the inner airs. Please direct us, for you control the entire cosmos.'

'Entering all living beings are You the one Supersoul within, the Controller directly, who maintains by the functions of the inner air; please direct us, for You control the entire cosmos.' (Vedabase)

 

Text 29

Also beyond this ocean of whey there is another dvīpa named Pushkara that is twice as big as the previous one and is surrounded by an ocean of sweet water of the same size. There a very big lotus flower is found with 100 million flower petals of pure gold that are like the flames of a blazing fire. This lotus is considered the sitting place of the all-powerful Lord of the Lotus [Brahmā].

Even so is there beyond that ocean of whey another dvīpa named Pushkara that is twice as big as the one before and is outside surrounded by an ocean of sweet water in which a very big lotusflower is found with a 100 million leaves of pure gold that are like the flames of a blazing fire; that lotus is considered to be the sittingplace of the all-powerful Lord of the Lotus [Brahmā]. (Vedabase)

 

Text 30

That dvīpa has one mountain [range] named Mānasottara that separates the varshas on the inner and the outer side. Measuring a 10.000 yojanas high and wide, it harbors in its four directions the cities of the four demigods ruling there [Indra, Yama, Varuna and Soma]. The chariot of the sun god Sūrya, circumambulating mount Meru on its highest point, moves around in an orbit that, calculated in terms of the days and nights of the demigods [**], consists of one complete year.

Within that dvīpa there is the one [mountain range] named Mānasottara marking indeed the inner and outer side of the lands there; it has, being as great as 10.000 yojanas high and wide, in its four directions the cities of the local rulers, the demigods headed by Indra. On its highest point circumambulating mount Meru moves around the chariot of the sun in an orbit that by the days and nights of the demigods consists of one whole year [a samvatsara]. (Vedabase)


Text 31

The ruler of that dvīpa, also a son of Priyavrata with the name Vītihotra, named the two varshas there after his two sons Ramanaka and Dhātaki and appointed them as their rulers when he, just as his other brothers did, restricted himself to virtuous activities to satisfy the Supreme Lord.

The ruler of that dvīpa, also a son of Priyavrata with the name Vītihotra, appointed as their rulers and named the two varshas of it to his two sons Ramanaka and Dhātaki, when he himself like his other brothers, factually remained in activities to satisfy the Supreme Lord. (Vedabase)


Text 32

The people of those lands worship, for the fulfillment of their desires, with ritualistic activities the Supreme Lord in the form of Lord Brahmā and pray the following:

The people of those lands, to their duty of ritual, worship the Supreme Lord in the form of Lord Brahmā for the fulfillment of their desires and pray this: (Vedabase)

 

Text 33

'Someone firmly convinced of the One Supreme must, in the form of [favorable] actions [rituals, good deeds], be of worship for the appearance of Him [as Lord Brahmā] who, free from duplicity and peacefully, discloses the supreme Brahman. That almighty Lord we offer our obeisances.'

'The form revealing the Supreme Brahman, which is achieved by consciously dealing with the illusion [by vedic ritual] must be worshiped by a person who, full of faith, is undivided, unwavering and of peace unto Him, the Most Powerful One we thus respect.' (Vedabase)


Text 34

Beyond that realm there is [outside of the ocean of sweet water] all around a formation named Lokāloka that is described as the boundary between the world of light and the world without light. 

Beyond that there is a mountain named Lokāloka which all around exists as the boundary between the places material and immaterial. (Vedabase)

 

Text 35

The realm [called Loka-varsha within that border] is as wide as the area between mount Meru and the Mānasottara range, [and changes outside into] another domain made of gold [called Aloka-varsha, the dark region] that is as smooth as a mirror. Anything dropped there can impossibly be retrieved and therefore the place is avoided by all living entities.
The earth of the land, found all between Meru and the Mānasottara range, is golden, and the rest outside is as smooth as a mirror; anything dropped there can no way be retrieved and therefore is the place shunned by all living entities. (Vedabase)

 

Text 36

The formation Lokāloka [that is the outer shell of the universe] is situated in between the lands that one speaks of as being inhabited and not inhabited.

The mountain Lokāloka [that is the outer shell] is established as the separation by which one speaks of the lands inhabited and the lands not inhabited. (Vedabase)

 

Text 37

For the rays of all the luminaries on this side - from the sun up to those of Dhruva's goal of liberation [the center of the universe, see 4.12: 12] -, it is not possible to reach beyond that outer limit of the three worlds, that was created all around by the Lord. 

That end of the three worlds, created all around of them by the Controller, extends that excessively that for the rays of all the luminaries from the sun up to the goal of liberation of Dhruva [the universal center, see 4.12: 12], there is no possibility to reach beyond. (Vedabase)

 

Text 38

The scholars who investigated the positions, characteristics and situations of all the worlds [the planets and stars], calculated that the area between the centre and the outer Lokāloka limit of the universe covers as much as half a billion yojanas, one quarter [of the diameter] of the celestial globe.

The scholars investigating calculated that the locations of the planets, to the sizes of their appearances as well as to their stellar situations, cover as much as half a billion yojanas, of which this tangible world of light constitutes but one quarter [of the complete of all matter in existence; the rest being 'dark matter' one says these days]. (Vedabase)


Text 39

By the source of the self who is the spiritual teacher of the entire universe [Brahmā] the four gaja-patis ['the best of all elephants'] Rishabha, Pushkaracūda, Vāmana and Aparājit are established in the four directions on top of that [formation], in order to take care of the stability of the different planets in the universe.

On top of that are in the four directions by the master of the universe [Brahmā], which is the cradle of the soul, established the best of all elephants called Rishabha, Pushkaracūda, Vāmana and Aparājita, that so take care of the stability of the different planets in the universe. (Vedabase)

 

Text 40

He [Lord Vishnu] is of all His locally ruling, personal divinities [His 'elephants'] and all the types of heroes who are expansions of His potency, the Supreme Lord, the foremost and greatest personality, the great master of all powers, the Soul of all souls and the True Self of the purest goodness characterized by religion, spiritual knowledge, detachment, all opulence and the eight great perfections [see 3.15: 45]. Decorated by the different weapons held up by His stout arms and surrounded by expansions like Vishvaksena and other representatives and eminent associates, He, for the benefit of all worlds, manifests His form on all sides of that greatest of all mountains.

Of all his locally ruling, personal divinities and all the types of heroes thriving on Him, is He the Supreme Lord, the foremost and greatest personality, the great master of all grace, the Soul in the beyond, the True Self of the purest goodness characterized by religion, spiritual knowledge, detachment, all opulence and the eight great perfections [see 3.15: 45]; surrounded by expansions like Vishvaksena and decorated with His different weapons held up by His own stout arms, manifests He, for the benefit of all worlds, on that greatest of all mountains His form existing all around. (Vedabase)

 

Text 41

For the duration of a kalpa the Supreme Lord assumes that appearance just to maintain the life in the different worlds that He evolved on the basis of His outer potency.

For the time of His creation has the Supreme Lord by His own spiritual potency thus accepted this perfected appearance, just for the purpose of maintaining that way the manifold of the various worlds of living. (Vedabase)


Text 42

About the area beyond the [uninhabitable, dark] realm [of Aloka-varsha], which stretches outside of Lokāloka as far as the width of the area inside, one says that it is the destination for those who free from all contamination walk the path of the Lord of Yoga.

The uninhabited nonmaterial varsha extends as far outside Lokāloka as the width found within, and that beyond is the path of the Lord of Yoga that is said to be the purest. (Vedabase)


Text 43

In the center of the universe the suns are found situated between heaven and earth. That sunny globe in the middle consists of a quarter of a billion stars.

In the center of the universe are the stars found in between heaven and earth; that globe in the middle consists of a quarter of a billion suns. (Vedabase)

 

Text 44

Because of having entered the lifeless form of this globe at its time of creation, he [Brahmā] is known as Mārtanda ['the god of the suns']. The designation known as Hiranyagarbha ['the gold inside'] came about because he received his body from that [golden splendor].

From having entered into the fixed of this globe at its time of creation, is he [Brahmā] known as Mārtanda [the God of the Suns]; the designation known as Hiranyagarbha ['the gold inside' or Brahmā] came into existence that way because that [golden luminosity] is where he received his body from. (Vedabase)

 

Text 45

Because of the sun [of the sun god Sūrya] we are able to divide the directions, the ether, the planets above and the worlds below, as also all the heavenly abodes, the abodes for liberation and the hellish places such as Atala.

From the sun-god we indeed have the divisions of the directions of the sky, the planets above and the worlds below, and also all other divisions of heavenly abodes, abodes of liberation as also of hellish places such as Atala. (Vedabase)

 

Text 46

The sun god is the controller of all sorts of living beings, he is the life, soul and vision of the gods, the lower animals, the human beings, the plants, the trees and everything crawling and creeping.'

The sun-god is the controller of all sorts of living beings, he is the life, soul and vision of the godly, the lower animals, the human beings and everything crawling and creeping, the life, soul and vision. (Vedabase)

  

*: According to some modern interpretation these seas refer to the bodily fluids, with the dvīpas as sections in the virāth-rūpa universal body of the Lord: Lavana or salt sea (urine), cane juice sea (perspiration), Surā or sea of wine (senses), Sarpi or sea of ghee (semen), Dadhi or buttermilk sea [yoghurt, whey] (mucus), the sea of milk (saliva), and the sea of pure water (tears).

**: A day and a night of the demigods consists of a so-called Uttarāyana course of the sun through the north and a Dakshināyana course through the south, one solar year thus. A year of the god consists of 360 of such days. 



 

 

 

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              License
The text and audio are offered under the conditions of the
Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License.
The picture is titled: 'Jambhu Dvipa Cosmology'. It is a Jainist diagram of the division of the one cosmos,
with at the center the heart and the mystical mountain Meru, surrounded by seas and rivers (15th century). 
Source.
The second picture is a Hindu cosmogram showing the tortoise, Akupara,
supporting the elephants upon whom the earth rests,
enclosed by the world serpent, Asootee.
Drawing after an old Hindu ceramic.
Source (inf0)
Production: Filognostic Association of The Order of Time


  

 

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