Dâkinîs: female attendants of K â l i, flesh-eating associates of lord S' i v a.

Dâksâyanî: D a k s h a 's daughter, S a t î, who consciously self-ignited after returning to her father who had disrespected her husband Lord S' i v a (see S a t î).

Dâl: thick lentil soup. Belongs to each vedic (feast-)meal as an extra to the rice (plus the vegetables, fruits and dairy) to combine thus the needed vegetable protein so that no meat needs to be consumed. In combination with dairy products taken for the vitamin B12, one can also consume soy beans (tofu) or brown beans as a meat-replacement, provided one sufficiently feeds on bread and/or rice.

Dâmodara: (bound belly) name for toddler K r i s h n a who stole the butter.

Dâna: non-desiring, charity (see n i y a m a). Dhana means welfare or riches.

- 1: donating, giving gifts.
- 2. sharing or communicating.
- 3. purification (see
s a u c a).

Dânavas: giants, a class of demons, sons of Dânu, another wife of K a s' y a p a; often mentioned next to the D a i t y a s, the evil sons of D i t i.

Dâsa: (servant) instrument of the will of God, K r i s h n a.

Dâsya: a r a s a, the servant-Lord-relationship.

Daityas: the evil sons of D i t i. (zie H i r a n y a k a s' i p u and H i r a n y â k s h a).

Daksha ('the expert'): founding father or p r a j â p a t i. Son of B r a h m â who was cursed by Lord S' i v a because he had lost his respect for him. Got from S' i v a the head of a goat when he arose from the death to which he was condemned (see S.B. 4.5-7.) Daksha on his turn cursed N â r a d a because he would bind his sons too much to the celibate because of which the dynasty was threatened with extinction. Because of that curse is N â r a d a, and thus also the pure devotees outside the â s' r a m a, not capable of staying in one place for more than three days S.B.: 6.4-5).

Danda: stick, staff, discipline, control (see also t r i - d a n d a).

- Period of about thirty minutes also called a nâdikâ (3.11: 8).

Dandavat: stretched on the ground paying obeisances before the m û r t i s and/or spiritual teacher.

Dantavakra: demonic family member of K r i s h n a (zie 9.24: 27) who in his rage about the death of his mates S' a l v a and S' i s' u p â l a turned against K r i s h n a and was killed (see 10.78).

Darbha: type of grass different from the flat K u s' a grass, also used for mats to sit on. Name: Saccharum cylindricum.

Daridra-nârâyana: false teaching saying that people are 'poor' manifestations of God (N â r â y a n a).

Darshanas: ('perspectives, ways of seeing, visions') The six systems of indian philosophy. syncretically considered to be complimentary rather than contradictory, despite of the diverging and sometimes contradictory nature in formulating their tenets with the concepts of â t m â and b r a h m a (see also 12.13: 11-12). These orthodox visions share, together with the heterodox religiosity of Buddhism, Jainism and S'ankarism against which they rose at the time Christianity was founded a.) the u p a n i s h a d i c notion of cyclic time in y u g a s and rebirths and b.) the concept of m o k s h a or liberation from that rebirth by means of emancipation and transcendence. The six are often organized in three dualities of philosophy: the unitarian/methodic (scientific), the analytic/connective (spiritual) and the ritual/exegetic (religious) approaches. There is also a suggestion of progress in emancipation from low to high in this order.

A: Scientific.
- 1
V a i s' e s h i k a, the atomistic view of reality.
- 2 The
N y â y a -vision of the methodic approach.
B: Spiritual.
- 3 the
S a n k h y a -vision of analysis in t a t t v a s as opposed to the p u r u s h a.
- 4 The
Y o g a -vison of transcendence by meditation in eight 'limbs' or a n g a s.
C: Religious.
- 5 The
M î m â m s â notion of regulated rituals and service and
- 6 The
V e d â n t a view of the concluding and to time and place adaptive transcendental commentaries upon the p u r â n a, i t i h â s a and u p a n i s h a d literatures.

- The N y â y a and V a i s' e s h i k a perspectives are part of science, the k a r m a - m î m â m s â one can recognize in the vision of the civil Hindu with his m a n d i r s and p u n d i t s, the Y o g a is the popular version of the spiritual discipline of connecting with the Absolute and the analytic of the S a n k h y a vision was assimilated by the v e d â n t i c  u t t a r a - m î m â m s â approach we know in the West as the H a r e K r i s h n a s (see also K a p i l a and y o g a).

Darshan: ('the seeing') the presence of the guru; the favor of saints and great sages to their followers to enjoy their presence.

Das'ârha: ('worthy of service') a common ancestor of the V r i s h n i s, K r i s h n a's familyname, described in 9.24: 3-4 (see also Y â d a v a s).

Dasendriya: the ten sense organs consisting of the five senses of perception (j ñ â n e n d r i y a's) and the five of action (k a r m e n d r i y a s) resp.: ear, eye, tongue, nose, skin, and the hands, legs, speech organ, arse and genitals.

Dattâtreya: ('the given one') the son of A t r i, a mighty yogî of Lord V i s h n u, considered a partial incarnation of Him (4.1: 15 & 33). Prayed to for the protection against disloyal union (non-yoga, see 6.8: 16).

- The p a r a m p a r â maintains the position that the brahmin that K r i s h n a speaks of mentioning the twenty-four gurus of the a v a d h û t a (in 11.7,8&9) would have been Dattâtreya.

- He, also known as Datta, is said to contain the essence of B r a h m â, V i s h n u and S'i va. He grew up to be a mystic mendicant, roaming the world with his cow and four dogs. He mastered the V e d a s and the T a n t r a s; many s â d h u s, s a n n y â s î s, ascetics, y o g î s, hermits and sages like Gorakhnath and Matsyendranath became his disciples. He also became the great leader of the kanphota-nathpanthi, the mystics with 'split-ears' who follow the antinomian way of opposing the fixed meaning or universal applicability of the moral law.

Dayâ: compassion as an indirect r a s a.

- One of the four basic values of religiosity (see d h a r m a).

Deha: the physical body.

Demigod: divine, godly, godconscious, devoted person (see b h a k t a, d e v a, a d h i k â r i)

- Living being in goodness, servant of God.

- Being endowed by God with the power to rule over a certain portion of the cosmic household, like the sun, rain, fire, and also to see to it that all beings suffer no want for anything.

- Inhabitant of the heavenly planets.

Demons: see r â k s h a s a and a s u r a.

Desire Tree (kalpa vriksha): tree, one can find on G o l o k a V r i n d â v a n a, it fulfills all one's wishes.

- Also a name for the v a i s h n a v a s who fulfill each righteous wish (see also the vaishnava pranâma).

Deva: demigod; great personality in devotion unto K r i s h n a, selfrealized to independent management.

- Living being, empowered by the Lord with the might to rule over a certain section of the universe, like the sun, the rain, fire etc., and also to watch over the well-being of all living beings.

- Pious being, servant of God. Godly person, demigod. Godconscious person.

- In three kinds: A d i t y a s or sons of A d i t i (see 8.16 & 17), the V a s u s and the R u d r a s. The virtuous, the good and the purifiers.

- The Brihadaranyak Upanishad says that there are mainly thirty-three gods who are important in the celestial world in terms of the performance of Vedic rituals and the y a j ñ a s. Other celestial gods are affiliates to them. They are: eight V a s u s, eleven R u d r a s, twelve A d i t y a s (forms of sun god), I n d r a and P r a j â p a t i (hindu encycl.).

- In 11.24: 8 there is mention of eleven gods presiding over the working and perceiving senses and the mind. They are: one: the deities presiding over the quarters, two V â y u, three S u r y a, four V a r u n a, five the A s' v i n i K u m â r a s, six A g n i, seven I n d r a, eight V i s h n u, nine M i t r a, ten P r a j â p a t i and eleven C a n d r a.

- In 3.6: 12-23 there is mention of: Agni & the V e d a (to the spoken word), V a r u n a, the A s' v i n s, S û r y a, C a n d r a, Anila (to the air, touch), B r a h m â (as the first P r a j â p a t i), M i t r a, I n d r a, S' i v a, V i s h n u and the rulers of the directions (according to the ears).

Devahûti: the mother of the incarnation of the Lord as K a p i l a (S.B. 3.33).

Devakî: the mother of Lord K r i s h n a. When K r i s h n a appears in the material world, does he send ahead some devotees, to serve Him as father, mother etc. (see also Y a s' o d â).

Devakî-nandana: K r i s h n a, the child of D e v a k î.

Devala: an ancient authority on the V e d a s. His name is related to the story of G a j e n d r a, the elephant that was captured by a crocodile. That crocodile was Hûhû, a singer of heaven who by a curse of sage Devala, had turned into one (see 8.4: 3-4).

Devarshi: great sage, wise among the gods, honorary title (of N â r a d a M u n i e.g.).

Devî: goddess, honorary title of female devotees alike m a t a j i, mother, or p r a b h u, master, for the males.

Devotee: see B h a k t a.

Devotee, Pure -: someone who, apart from all the attachments to the fruit of his actions (k a r m a) to speculative thought, with body and soul surrenders to the service of the Lord and thus achieves the perfections of devotion unto God and the pinnacle of spiritual realization. (see also b h a k t a, b h a g a v a t a, s a d h u, s a d h a k a, p a r a m a h a m s a, â c â r y a, g o s v â m î)

Devotional service: see B h a k t i.

Dhâranâ: concentration, retention, understanding, firmness, holding, bearing, collecting, supporting.

- Part of a s h t h â n g a y o g a that comes before the meditation and wherein one concentrates on the object to meditate with; usually a m a n t r a.

- See also the different ways of concentrating for the different perfections, or s i d d h i s, of y o g a (11.15: 10-30).

- The first part of the process of yogic integration, the restraint and selfcontol called s a m y a m a.

Dhana: wealth property, riches, money.

Dhanañjaya: 'conqueror of wealth', name for A r j u n a referring to his generosity.

Dhanvantari: ('moving in a curve') a v a t â r a of V i s h n u who appeared from the churning of the ocean, standing for the integrity of (ayurvedic) medicine (see 8.8).

Dharma (sanâtana-): that religious dutifulness that is bound to K r i s h n a and results in the eternal values of s a t y a, d a y â, t a p a h, s a u c a (or d â n a): truthfulness, compassion, sobriety and purity (bull of d h a r m a, see K a l i - y u g a and also s v a - d h a r m a en v i d h i, see 1.17, 3.13: 35 and 11.17: 10, 12.3: 18).

- Dharma-râja or also Dharma: name of Y u d h i s h t h h i r a.

- Dharma: as a name used for the son of Dharma or the son of Y a m a r â j a, the king of the duties of religion.

- As N a r a - N â r â y a n a, the best of sages perfectly peaceful, was He born from M û r t i, the daughter of D a k s h a and wife of Dharma (11.4: 6), and according the M a t s y a  P u r â n a (3.10), was Dharma, the father of N a r a - N â r â y a n a R i s h i, born from the right breast of B r a h m â and married he later with thirteen of the daughters of P r a j â p a t i  D a k s h a.

- Religiosity.

- Universal and absolute religion (see also a d h a r m a, b h â g a v a t a - d h a r m a and v a r n â s' r a m a - d h a r m a).

- The nature of something. Its very character.

- Another name for the different religious, societal and "personal" duties (s w a - d h a r m a s) of man.

- That what is defended by the V e d a; to live to scriptural precept (see S.B. 6.1).

- In two kinds: dutiful acting in attachment, pravritti dharma; and dutiful acting in detachment, nivritti dharma (see 3.32: 2-5 & 43-36, 4.4: 20 and 11.10: 4).

- What obstructs the original purpose of one's own duty is vidharma, misconceived or strange to one's own is it paradharma, directions that are turned against one's purpose in life are upadharma and one speaks of chala when by an opponent the words of the scripture are twisted and covered with pretense. That what by persons whimsically, as a dim reflection, is done in defiance of the purpose of one's own order of life [one's âs'rama] is âbhâsa; [to all of this one has to pose the question:] in what respect would that what to one's own nature as being the appropriate dharma is arranged not be capable of bringing peace? (S.B. 7.15: 12-13).

- The Lord His seat of dharma is imagined as consisting of the righteousness, wisdom, detachment and supremacy as its legs, its opposites as the sides and the three g u n a s as the three planks for the base (mentioned in 11.27: 25-26).

Dharma-kshetra: ('field of righteousness') holy place of pilgrimage. Term used for K u r u k s h e t r a, the battlefield of the great war.

Dharma megha samâdhi: 'seedless' absorption in contemplation of the virtue and justice. Condition of enlightenment (see also k a i v a l y a).

- Dissolve in the One. A purpose denied by the v a i s h n a v a.

Dharmarâja: another name of Y a m a r â j a.

Dharma-vyâdha: a nonviolent hunter described in the V a r â h a P u r â n a quoted in 11.12: 3-6 to illustrate the importance of association with devotees. In a previous life he somehow became a brahma-râkshasa or brâhmin ghost but was eventually saved since he in a previous K a l i - y u g a had the association of a v a i s h n a v a-king named Vâsu.

Dhîra: unaffected, sober person.

- Someone who is not confounded by the material energy.

Dhoti: long piece of cloth wrapped around the waist. Standard clothing for the male devotees in the temple.

Dhyana: meditation (see a s h t h â n g a - y o g a).

Dhristadyumna: the son of D r u p a d a who arranged the ranks of the P â n d a v a s on the battlefield of K u r u k s h e t r a.

Dhritarâshthra: the father of the K a u r a v a s. The B h a g a v a d - G î t â, as it was spoken on the battlefield of K u r u k s h e t r a, was related to him by his secretary S a ñ j a y a.

- The uncle of the P â n d a v a s, whose efforts to seize their kingdom for his own sons, led to the war of K u r u k s h e t r a.

Dhruva Mahârâja: (dhruva means: permanent, eternal, constant) great devotee who in his fifth year of life underwent severe penances and realized the Supreme Personality of Godhead that way (see: S.B. 4.8-13).

Dhyâna: seventh phase of the eight phases of a s h t h â n g a - y o g a, consisting of the practice of meditation.

- Exercising meditation on the Supreme Lord, who resides in the heart as the Supersoul.

Digdevatâ: (or dikpati) a regent or guardian of a quarter of the sky.

Dîkshâ: initiation, introduction, preparation for the spiritual soul, the way to purify (see 12.11: 17).

- The process of acquiring a spiritual identity with K r i s h n a by s' r a d d h a, faith; sâdhu-sanga, association with devotees and bhajana kriya: the regular spiritual practice of chanting the names alone and together and reading the scriptures and such, and as a consequence receive a spiritual name after a due period of consolidation (normally about a year, see also a d h i k â r i).

- There are dîkshâ gurus and s'ishya-gurus, g u r u s of initiation and g u r u s of instruction (see g u r u s).

Disciplic succession: see p a r a m p a r â.

Diti: the wife of K a s' y a p a  M u n i and mother of the demons H i r a n y â k s ha and H i r a n y a k a s' i p u (see S.B. 3.14).

Diviyam s'rotam: in y o g a is to listen to ethereal sound of the special abilities acquired by the practice; P a t a ñ j a l i describes it: s'rota âkâsayohsam bandha samyamât diviyam s'rotam ('from s a m y a m a on the relation between space and sound is there the divine power of hearing'), Y o g a- s u t r a s III.42, and also K r i s h n a discusses this secondary s i d d h i (see also s' r o t a and a p a u r u s h a, and 11.15: 19).

Divya-tantri: (d i v y a: godly) a y o g î who engages in sexual behavior only for having offspring and brings the rest of the sexuality to a subliminal state of absorption in God (K r i s h n a) - c o n s c i o u s n e s s.

Draupadî: daughter of king D r u p a d a and wife of the P â n d a v a s.

Dronâcârya: the teacher of martial arts of A r j u n a and other P â n d a v a s and chief commander of the K u r u s on the battlefield of K u r u k s e t r a.

Drupada: a warrior fighting at the side of the P â n d a v a s on the battlefield of K u r u k s e t r a.

Duhkha: unhappiness, reactions, misery. Alternates with material happiness or: s u k h a.

Durgâ: goddess. Heartens the struggle for material interests of m a h â m â y â.

- The impersonation of the material energy and the spouse of Lord S' i v a.

- S.B.: 8.12: 40 (see also for a picture) 'Once you're joined with Me in the form of eternal time will that illusory energy consisting of the modes of nature, with all her different elements (the goddess Durgâ in sum) no longer be able to bewilder you.'

Durga: difficult to attain, hard to approach, danger, distress.

Durvâsâ Muni: mighty, mystical y o g î, feared for his terrible curses. Had a conflict with A m b a r î s h a M a h â r â j a about the order of time and finally had to seek his refuge with A m b a r î s h a who then pronounced the c a k r a-prayers to restore the order and the mutual peace (see 9.4 & 5).

Duryodhana: K a u r a v a, nephew of A r j u n a, who as the eldest lead the enemy armies together with his hundred other brothers, the sons of the blind uncle D h r i t h a r â s h t h r a.

Dushkritam: ('of sin') crooks, miscreants, criminals, sinners resisting surrender to K r i s h n a.

Dvâpara-yuga: the third era preceding K a l i- y u g a, twice as long of duration (see K a l i - y u g a). Is part of a cycle of four (m a h â - y u g a); covers 864.000 years (see also 2.1: 8, 11.5: 27-30).

Dvârakâ: (many-gates; for all walks of life) The city within the sea to which K r i s h n a together with His loyals retreated after His stay in M a t h û r a, the capital of His region of birth (see 10: 50).

- The city where Lord K r i s h n a's pastimes as a head of state, wellfaring noble, father and lover took place.

Dvârakâdhîsa: name of the Supreme Personality of Godhead as Lord over the city of D v â r a k â.

Dvaipâyana: see V y â s a d e v a.

Dves'a: aversion, unhappiness, hate, connected with the irrationality of material logic. Belongs to the k l e s' a s.

Dvijâ (-jana): twice-born: someone who accepted a spiritual life: who accepted a spiritual teacher and got initiated.

- Anyone of the three higher classes in the vedic society (see v a r n a).

- Dvijas: The twice born, the ones of G a r u d a, the 'great birds'.

Dvîpa: 'separate area, island or continent'. There are seven dvîpas as for the continents of the earth. Also B r a hm â's lotus, the galaxy, is described as a dvîpa. The eurasian continent is known as Jambhûdvîpa. (see also v a r s h a and S.B. 5.1:33, S.B. 5.20, and 10.63: 37).

- There is also a divsion of nine dvîpas, nava-dvîpa, named after the sons of Âgnîdhra: Nâbhi, Kimpurusha, Harivarsha, Ilâvrita, Ramyaka, Hiranmaya, Kuru, Bhadrâs'va and Ketumâla. These constitute the different parts of India or b h â r a t a - v a r s h a later ruled by nine of the hundred sons of R i s h a b h a. Navadvîpa is also the name of the birthplace of Lord C a i t a n y a. (see n a v a - y o g e n d r a s, 5.2: 19-21 and 11.2: 19).


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