Bhagavad Gîtâ Time Quotes:
In the meditations of the
different forms of yoga it is all about transcending the duality and
developing stability in that consciousness above matter. One of the
primary dualities is the one of the personal, the completeness, the
integrity as opposed to the impersonal, the numerical, the temporary
and distinct. In the Bhâgavatam both are dealt with. For when we
meditate, with or without a mantra, we become aware of the different
dualities and attain equilibrium with them. Then we see matters the way
they are and are freed from illusion. That constitutes the basis of all
religiosity and science. Striving for freedom from illusion is the
essence of and condition for that what we call civilization. Thus
constitutes meditating on time, with calendars and clocks, and thus
learning to observe, respect and experience time, the course of time
and the changing moment of the eternal Now the way we have it naturally
(see tempometer), the perfect counterpart
of the religious or not religious meditation upon the person (of God),
the transcendence towards the complete, the acquiring of an overview
and reaching of an integrity of beatitude. When one respects one half,
one automatically achieves respect and motivation for the proper order
of the reality of the other half of this duality. Thus to meditate upon
and have respect for the natural order of time leads to meditation on
and respect for the original nature and order of the person. When one
is soberly aware of the time the way it has its course in nature, one
is consequently also aware of the counterpart constituted by the person
as the ideal integrity, the coherence and the completeness and
unification of the forces of nature as a form of conscious control, as
conscious counterplay of those further impersonal forces of nature. The
person thus cannot be separated from his natural counterpart that is
the impersonal. One belongs to the other, the one exists because of the
other, the way light and darkness and heat and cold do. In order to
offer a clear notion of how this impersonal aspect is described in the
Bhâgavatam, I offer here an overview of all that in this book is
stated about time.
philosophically inclined should for that reason endeavor only for this
[spiritual fulfillment] that is not so much found by searching from
to low, for material fulfillment - countered by miseries - is in the
of the time that operates so subtly, found anyhow as a result of one's
Being only five years
attended the school of the brahmins and lived, depending on her,
without having a clue about time, place and direction.
When she once went out
at night to milk a
cow, she was bitten in the leg by a snake on the path and thus my poor
mother fell victim of the supreme time.
Krishna together with
pacified the shocked
and affected family who had lost their friends and members, by showing
how each is subjected to the Time that cannot be avoided.
I consider You
personification of Eternal Time, the Lord without a beginning or an
end, the All-pervasive One who distributes His mercy everywhere,
among the beings who live in mutual dissent.
All the unpleasant that
think, is the inescapable effect of Time; you, just like the rest of
the world with its ruling demigods, fall under that control the way
clouds are carried by the wind.
there be such misfortune with Yudhishthhira, the son of
the ruler of religion, being
present, as also Bhîma
with his mighty club, Arjuna
carrying his Gândîva and our well-wisher Krishna?
lotus feet, oh Lord,
like one does in the worship of Brahmâ and his sons and the
king of heaven. You after all are for the ones who desire the supreme
welfare in this life, the Master of Transcendence upon whom the
inevitable time has no grip.
Time surpasses inimitably
those who are inattentive
and engrossed in the mind of attachment to family affairs.
well aware of this, said to
Dhritarâshthra: 'Oh King, [dear brother], please withdraw
without delay, just see how fear is ruling your life.
In this material world
oh master, there is no help from
anyone or anything to escape this fear, because that fear concerns
the Supreme Lord who approaches us all in the form of eternal Time.
Inevitably overtaken by
the pull of time a
person must, just like that, give up this life, as dear as it is to
everyone, not to mention the wealth and such he has acquired.
is this body, which is made out of the five elements [fire, water, air,
earth and ether] and is controlled by time, by materially motivated
and by the modes of nature [kâla, karma and the gunas],
He, the Father of
all creation, the Supreme Lord, has now, oh great King, descended in
this world in the form of
[death, the all-devouring] Time, in order to eliminate everyone
inimical to the
The time had taken an
inauspicious turn: he
observed seasonal irregularities and saw that human beings sinfully
turned to anger, greed and falsehood in heartening their
civil means of livelihood.
gradually were acquiring godless habits like wantonness and such. The
king facing these serious matters and bad omens, spoke with his younger
brother about it.
it be so that, as Nârada told
us, the Supreme Personality has decided it is time to leave this
physical manifestation of Himself?
Bearing in mind the
words spoken by Govinda, I remember how attractive
they are, and how they, imbued with importance and appropriate to time
and circumstance, put an end to the pain in the heart.' "
that even subdues the most powerful soul, stolen away your good fortune
extolled by the demigods?'
'Verily, seven days from
now the wretched soul of the
dynasty who offended my father will,
Thus pondering, the message reached him of the curse
of death pronounced by the sage's son. That curse in the form of the
fire of a snake bird, he accepted as auspicious because that
impending happening would be the consequence of his indifference about
member of the Kuru family, therefore also your life's
duration that is limited to seven days, should inspire you to perform
everything that traditionally belongs to the rituals for a next life.
personal body is this
world in which we experience all that belongs to the past, the present
and the future of this universe in existence.
His veins are the
rivers and the plants and
trees are the hairs on the body of the Universal Form, oh King. The air
is His omnipotent breathing, the passing of the ages, Time, is His
movement and the constant operation of the modes of material nature is
Let me tell
you that the hairs on the head
of the Supreme One are the clouds, oh best of the Kurus, and that
the intelligence of the Almighty One is the prime cause of the material
creation, so one says. His mind, the reservoir of all changes, is known
as the moon.
Whenever one desires to
give up one's body, oh
King, one should as a sage, without being disturbed, comfortably seated
and with one's thinking unperturbed by matters of time and place, in control of the
life air restrain the senses
with the help of the mind.
one will not find the supremacy of
time that for sure controls the godly who direct the worldly creatures
with their demigods, nor will one find there mundane goodness, passion
or ignorance or any material change or causality of
nature at large.
what and what not relates to the divine of the transcendental position,
they who wish to avoid what is godless, completely give up the perplexities [of arguing to time
and place], and place thereto in
purely at Him directed good-will every
His worshipable lotus feet
the divinity of fire [Vais'vânara,
one attains by following
path of [the sushumnâ,
breath, the illuminating pure Spirit of the Absolute, whereupon being freed from
impurities going upwards one [in respect of the cyclic order of the
luminaries] reaches the [galactic cakra
order of the] Lord, oh King,
[meaning: dolphin, to the form of the Milky Way, galactic time].
[Vishnu], only the
being who got purified by the
his smallness [the yogi], reaches the place worshiped by those who know
the Absolute Spirit. The
self-realized souls enjoy their stay there for the time of a kalpa
[a day of Brahmâ].
All of the world that I
created from the effulgence [the
brahmajyoti] of His
existence, just like it is with
the fire, the sun, the moon, the planets and
the stars [that radiate from His
of Control by the potency of His material
thus, from the independent will of His divine self, arrived at many
appearances, taking upon
Himself their karma, [being subjected to] time and their particular
of the mahat-tattva
reality'] took place, from eternal time there was the transformation of
the modes and from the modification of the original nature the
found their existence.
transformation of the ether the
air found its existence which is characterized by the quality of
touch. Along with it sound also appeared as a
was remembered from the ether.
Air thus acquired also a life of
diversity with energy and force. Air on its turn again
transformed under the influence of time and generated from its nature the element of fire in
water next the
smell of the juice followed that
assumed form [as the earth
element] together with the
qualities of touch and sound.
universe after countless
been submerged in the [causal] waters, was by the personal soul [the Lord] who
animates the inanimate awakened to its own time of living.
S.B. 2.6: 11
The unseen mover [Time]
of the seas and
oceans of the living beings that evolve but also find [physical]
destruction in His belly [during Brahmâ's night], is by the
intelligent ones known as the
[beating] heart that is located in the subtle body.
What is needed for the
performance of sacrifices, are matters such as
flowers and leaves, burning material [such as
straw], an altar and also a
framework of time [a calendar e.g.] for following the qualities of
nature [like spring].
S.B. 2.6: 42
first avatâra of the Lord is the Original Person:
[Mahâvishnu or Kâranodakas'âyî
Vishnu. He is the foundation of] space time
[kâla svabhavah, the original nature of time], cause, effect,
elements, the modes, as also the ego, the senses and the mind. These
together constitute the diversity of the gigantic universal independent
body [also called
Garbhodakas'âyî Vishnu] of all
moves and does not move of the Almighty Supreme.
what about a day of
Brahmâ [a kalpa]
[vikalpas]? What can you say about
the time we refer to with the words past, future and present? And how
about the lifespan allotted to embodied beings?
purest of the twice-born souls, when did time begin and what can you
say about the indication of time as being short or long as like passing
with a certain activity?
The very moment he [the witness, the
soul], in his glory of
transcending the time of the material energy, enjoys it to be free from
illusion, he in that fulness will forsake these two [of 'I' and
I explained to you
the four divisions of identity
in devotional service [three
the modes and one for their transcendence*],
as also the
imperceptible action of time [the conditioning] that drives
the living entities.
Uddhava said: 'What can I say about
our wellbeing now the sun of Krishna has set and the house of my family
has been swallowed by the great serpent of the past?
Even though You
desires You engage in all kinds of activities, even though You are
still take birth, being the controller of eternal Time You nevertheless
take shelter of the fortress out
of fear for Your enemies
and despite enjoying within Yourself, You lead a household life in
the association of
women; this bewilders the intelligence of the scholars in this world.
You are never
divided and ever fresh, yet You, in Your eternal
intelligence oh Master, call upon me for consultation, as if You would
bewildered. But that is never the case. That boggles my mind, oh Lord.
of Time, in their ignorant
sinfulness have turned themselves away from the
stories about the Lord and waste
their lives with useless philosophical
purposes and a diversity of rituals.
With the effect
Time [kâla] upon
the three modes
of this illusory energy, the
Supreme being in the beyond generated the
virility [the valor, the manliness, the power] by means of the person [or
Purusha] as a plenary expansion of Himself.
the unmanifested then by the interaction of time came about the Mahat-tattva
[the complete of the Supreme, the cosmic intelligence]. This self of
discernment seated in the physical self, dispells the ignornance and
makes the universe clearly visible.
[cosmic intelligence] thus being a part
of [or subjected to] guna, kāla and [jîv-]âtmâ
[the material qualities, time and the individual self], transformed
itself, within the range of sight of the Personality of Godhead, into
the individuality of all the different life forms of this universe with
their desire to [pro-]create [to continue their identification and
The Supreme Lord glancing this over from the ether,
thus being contacted, created the transformation of that touch in the
form of air [gasses].
transformed by the extremely powerful ether, gave [in
contraction] rise to the
form of the light [of the fire of the sun and the stars] and [the
bio-electricity] of sense perception by which
the world is perceived.
With the interaction of
air and light [fire] there was, with
the glance of the Lord [of the ether] mixing time with the external
energy, a transformation that created water in combination with its taste.
partly [local] uniting of the material energy with
eternal time, the by
the light produced water, that was thus created
quality of smell.
the right time. Thus we can
share our meals and can also all other living beings have their
sustenance, so that we, with our offerings of food, undisturbed may
enjoy our meal.
to Tvashthâ, the
and the power of sight by which forms can be seen.
Candra, the god of the
position with the function of mental activity because of which one is
lost in thoughts.
Oh brahmin, how are the
offerings [of S'râddha] regulated to honor the deceased and to
respect what the forefathers have created
and how are the times settled in respect of the positions of the
like the planets and the stars?
The way the power
of fire is hidden in wood,
He resided there in His place in the water, keeping all living beings
in their subtlety within His transcendental body from where He gives
life in the form of Time
For the duration of
thousand times four yugas [4.32 billion
with His internal potency lay
dormant for the sake of the
further development - by
means of His force called kâla [time] - of the worlds of
the living beings who depend on fruitive activities. That role gave His
body a bluish look [the blue of the refuge of the vivifying
the Time that roused the karma
to activity, soon
from the original self [of Vishnu] with that [agitation] a
his contemplating this way it thus came to pass that the
enormity of the three-dimensional reality of time [tri-kâlika] was generated that, as a weapon [a cakra], inspires fear in the
soul by limiting his span of life to a hundred years [compare 2.2:
long as the
people of the world are engaged in unwanted activities and in the
activities of their self-interest despise the by You as beneficial
pronounced devotional activities, the struggle for existence of
these people will be very tough and
with [the defiance of] Your
Vigilant Rule [of
Time] lead straight to
a shambles. Let there be my obeisances unto You.
He who was
the lotus, then saw how the lotus upon which he was situated and the
water surrounding it trembled because of the wind that was propelled by
by means of time [kâla],
the hidden, impersonal feature, that the Lord separated from the
Supreme Absolute [God or brahma] the material phenomenon that was
established as the bewildering material potency of Vishnu.
The way it [Eternal Time] is
there in the present, it was there in the beginning and will also be
supreme oneness of that particle being present within material bodies,
keeps its original form till the end of time, it is of
a continual, unrivaled uniformity.
my best one, besides being
known as the supreme, non-manifest
Almighty Lord who controls all physical action, can therefore also be measured
the motion of the minutest and largest forms of combinations of
particle is the time it takes to
vibrate in] a certain
atomic space. The greatest of
time is the time taken by the existence of the complete of all atoms.
such a 'day' and 'night' is called an ancestral [traditional or solar]
month with two of them forming a season. There are six of them
'cold' or hemanta, 'dew' or s'is'ira, 'spring' or vasanta,
or grîshma, 'rainy' or varshâs and
'autumn' or s'arad, counting from December 22] corresponding to
movement of the sun going through the southern and northern sky.
movement of the sun is
said to form one day of the demigods and is called a vatsara [a
tropical year] of twelve months. The duration of life of the human
being is estimated to be of a great number [a hundred] of those years
[see also the 'full
calendar of order'].
particles and their
combinations, the planets, the
heavenly bodies [like the moon] and the stars, all rotate in the
universe, to complete their orbit in a year of the
Almighty [cyclic order, the command] of eternal time.
speak about an orbit of
the sun, about an orbit of the other planets, the orbit of the stars
[in our galaxy
around Sagittarius A in the sky], the orbit of the moon, oh
Vidura, and the orbit of the earth as being a single [but differently
named] year [respectively a celestial year, a planetary year, a galactic
lunation and a tropical year].
years, one should
be of respect for the One [Lord
Time and who with His energy in different ways invigorates the seeds of
creation while during
unlimited Soul of the universe.
eternal time, beginning from the
atom up to the final duration of two parârdhas, is never capable
of controlling the Supreme Lord, it is the
controller of those souls who
are identified with their body.
demigods said: 'You, oh mighty
one, must be knowing about this
darkness we are so very afraid
of. Your supreme divinity is not affected by time and thus nothing is hidden for you.
the conditioned souls in the grip of desire are all bound by the rope
of the words of You, the Lord of the living beings. I, following their
example, also offer my oblations to You, oh light of eternal time.
The wheel of the
universe that with a
tremendous speed spins around the axle of Your imperishable [nature,
Brahman] with the three naves [of the sun, the moon and the stars], the
[twelve to] thirteen
spokes [of the lunar months], the three hundred and sixty joints [of
the days in a
demigod year], the six rims [of the seasons], and the innumerable
leaves [that are the moments],
may be cutting short the life-span of the universe but not the lives of
myself to You Lord Kapila, who are the supreme, transcendental
the origin of the world, the full awareness of time and the three
basic qualities of nature, the Maintainer of All the Worlds and the
power who by
His own potency absorbs the manifestations after their dissolution.
mother, My devotees will never,
lose Me [and My opulence], who
was chosen by them as their dearest self, son, friend, preceptor,
with the classification I provided, the material
qualities of the Absolute Truth of Brahman are summed up [called saguna
brahman]. One speaks thereto of time as the twenty-fifth element.
Some say that the time factor constitutes the power of the Original
Person that is feared by the doer, the individual soul, who is deluded by the false ego of being in
touch with material
movement of material nature without the interaction of her modes and
their specific qualities, oh daughter of Manu, is the [space]time [the
fourth dimension] from which we in our world know Him, the Supreme Lord.
He, the Lord of All
Entities, abides, as a
consequence of His potencies, within in the
form of the original person [purusha] and without in the form of
time [the twenty-fifth element].
traits of one's [reason in this state of Krishna or natural time]
similar to those
of the natural state of pure water: clarity, invariability and serenity.
from the subtlety of sound,
the subtle element of touch under
the transforming impulse of time. Thus the air is
found as also the
sense organ for it and the active perception with that sense of touch.
When [in the beginning of creation] the
seven primary elements [the five material elements,
ego and cosmic intelligence - the mahat-tattva] were not yet
mixed, [the Lord,] the origin of
creation endowed with kâla,
karma and guna [time,
workload and the modes] entered
is purified and
controlled by the practice of
yoga, one should, while
the tip of one's nose, meditate
on the goal of the Supreme
His form and measure of time, e.g.
represented by a mechanical
clock or water clock
the sun's summit with the
what about the nature of Eternal Time, [the drive of nature,] the form
of the Supreme Lord, of You as the ruler over all the other rulers,
under the influence of whom the common people act piously?
time, known as
cause of the different manifestations of the
living entities, constitutes the reason why all living beings who consider themselves
as existing in separation, from
the greatest on, live in fear.
He who from within
enters all the living
entities, constitutes the support of everyone and annihilates [them
again] by means of other living beings, is
named Vishnu, the enjoyer of all
sacrifices who is that
time factor, the master of all masters.
whom the wind out
fear blows and this sun is shining, for whom out of
fear Indra sends his rains and the heavenly bodies
are shining; He because of whom out of fear the trees, creepers and
herbs each in their own time bear flowers and produce their fruits; He
afraid of whom the rivers flow and the oceans do not overflow, because
of whom fire burns and the earth with her mountains does not submerge;
because of whom the sky provides air to those who breathe and under
control of whom the universe expands its body of the complete reality
[**], He for whom out
of fear the gods of creation and more, in charge of the basic qualities
within this world carry out their functions according to the yugas
He of whom afraid all the animate and inanimate beings
control; that infinite, final operator of beginningless Time is
the unchangeable Creator who creates people out of people and by means of death puts an
end to the
rule of death.'
'Just like a
mass of clouds has no knowledge
of the powerful
wind, a person has no knowledge
of this time factor, even though he is being conditioned by it.
[the Paramâtmâ] dwells in
both the animate and the inanimate, would give us the knowledge of the
threefold of Time, of past, present
and future? In
order to be freed from the threefold misery [as caused by
oneself, nature and others] we, as individual souls engaged on the path of
have to surrender to that divinity.
that] even Brahmâ, the
Creator of the
mobile and immobile manifestations who is the source of Vedic wisdom, as also the sages and the masters
of yoga, the
Kumâras and the other perfected souls and original thinkers of
attained the original Person of the Absolute Truth, the first among all
the souls, by dint of their detached, egoless actions, despite
their independent vision and all their spiritual qualities, again take
birth to assume their positions when this manifestation of the Lord is
recreated through the
operation of time and the three modes. And that is also true for all
others who enjoyed the divine opulence that resulted from their pious
deeds, they also return when the interaction of the modes again takes
the five elements of matter and
by their sexual behavior even more men
and women came about in this world.
of the, no
doubt hard to fathom, potency of the Almighty One in the form of the
force of Time, the interaction
[or disturbance of the equilibrium] of the modes of nature resulted
diversity of energies. The Supreme Personality
exerts His influence upon this diversity, even though He is not the one
acting, and in this diversity He leads to death, even though He is not
the one who kills.
He to whom there is no end puts in
the form of Time everything to an end, He who knows no beginning
the beginning of everything, He
who is inexhaustible gives life to one living being by means of
another one and He as death puts an end to everything that kills.
one is His ally or enemy. All the combinations of the
elements [organic and inorganic] helplessly follow His movement like
dust particles moved by the wind.
oh king, explain this karma [the work load of fruitive activities] as
arising from one's particular nature or as brought about by others, oh
protector of men. Some say it is due to time, others refer to fate,
while still others ascribe it to the desire of the living entity.
intelligence is of ignorance with
misconceptions of 'I' and 'you'. To
appears to be just
like in a dream; it [the
physical approach] constitutes
of bondage and misfortune.
considered everything created comprising his body,
his wives, children, friends, his influence, riches, the pleasure
grounds, the facilities for his women and the complete of the beauty of
the earth with its oceans, as something bound to time and for that
reason he left
for Badarikâs'rama [the Himalayan forest].
that place illumines from within all the three worlds everywhere and also makes them radiate. It can only be reached by those who
engage in welfare
activities and not
by those who are not merciful with other living beings.
invincible time, by which You
Your prowess and
majesty with simply raising Your eyebrows vanquish the entire
universe, constitutes no
threat to a
soul of complete surrender.
may guess about [the authority
and order of] Your reality [of Time]. [All] we see is how You, just
like the wind scattering the clouds, with Your so very great force [of
Time] in the long run destroy all the planetary systems and how all
living beings equally find their end because of external causes.
making fun, she
embraced him as he held her in his arms. Thus being captivated by the
woman he lost his keenness and was not quite aware of how, day and
night, the insurmountable time was passing.
4.27: 12 & 13
by kith and kin, one day
the time [of old age] arrived that is not very loved by those who are
fond of women. (13) Oh King, there is a king belonging to the heavenly kingdom
[Gandharvaloka] who is called
Candavega ['the impetuously streaming time']. He is at the head of three hundred and sixty very powerful other Gandharvas [the
days in a year].
[All of this
happened during the time that] the daughter
of the Almighty
Time [called Kâlakanyâ] traveled the three
worlds desiring someone for a husband, oh King
Prâcînabarhi, but there was never anyone who accepted her
When the king of the
Yavanas heard the daughter of Time express herself in these words, he,
wishing to serve the Lord,
willing to do his duty in
the private sphere and addressed her with a smile:
The year called
Candavega stands for the [passage of] time to
which the three hundred and sixty men and women from
heaven are to be understood as being the days and nights that by their
moving around reduce the
that one has on this earth [see
4.27: 13]. (22) The daughter of Time who was
welcomed by no one and as the sister-in-law was accepted by the king of the Yavanas in favor of death and
[see 4.27: 19-30].
just like a woman who with her sweet scent of flowers suggests the
safety of a household existence as being the result of an innocent
desire for sensual pleasures such as plucking flowers. Thus one fulfills one's desires [like
the deer] in always being absorbed in thoughts of sex with the wife and
pleasures to the tongue. The sound of the different
bumblebees, that is so very attractive to the ears, compares to the
attractive talks of the wife in the first place and also to those of
that occupy one's mind completely. The tigers in front of him are together alike all the moments of the days and
nights that, in
enjoying one's household, unnoticed take away one's life span. And
from behind there is the hunter taking care not to be seen while
crouching upon him like the superintendent of death by whose arrow
heart is pierced in
should see yourself in this as the one whose heart is
pierced, oh King.
side, abiding by a spirit of pure goodness
from passion and ignorance], the world around oneself [the so-called
'here and now' that with
be] like with the dark appearance of the [new] moon [also called Rahu
with an eclipse], thus
being connected will manifest itself [crystal clear].
According to Vijayadhvaja Tîrtha, who
belongs to the Madhvâcârya-sampradâya the two
following verses appear after verse 79. "Being of devotion unto
Krishna, of mercy towards others and of perfect knowledge of the True
Self, liberation from being bound to a material life will be the
consequence. The great secret of it all is that the material existence
of what we [will] see and do not see [anymore] all dissolves, just like
when one sleeps; in other words, everything that happened in the past,
happens in the present and is going to happen in the future, is but a
compassion by Your expansions
[and teachers] are visible to the humble devotees, are by one's devotional
necessary respect of]
time - always remembered as such [ - by Your beautiful embodiment and not so
thousands of mantras -], oh destroyer
of all inauspiciousness.
you united in His quality, be
therefore engaged in the devotional service of directly the Supreme
Lord who is the actual cause [pradhâna] of Time, who is
original Person and the One Supreme Soul of the unlimited number of
souls*, He who, by His spiritual
power, is aloof
from all emanations
of the self.
[unto Vishnu] He, also in respect of the different gods and
purposes and, in line with the instructions, providing in abundance for everything that was
needed, performed according to time and
age and faith.
Vishnudatta ['protected by Vishnu'; Parîkchit], to those who are not perplexed this is not such
a great miracle. They who without animosity are of goodness to all are
by the Supreme Lord of the
invincible Time who carries the best of all weapons [the Sudars'ana
disc] personally fully liberated from the very strong and tight knot
in the heart [that is the consequence] of a false physical concept of
life. Even when
threatened by decapitation [or other attacks on their lives], those
liberated souls and devotees who
full of surrender are protected at His lotus feet are never upset by these kinds of emotional states; they have
nothing to fear.'
Thus he sarcastically criticized him
But there was no protest
of a false belief of 'I' and 'mine' with him who carried on in silence
the palanquin as before. As someone on the spiritual platform he was of such a
particular disposition concerning the physical matters
of having a from ignorance resulting, final vehicle of time, a physical
body that consists of a mixture of the natural modes, the workload and
himself], by the Controller turning the wheel of
time this creature was deprived of its family, friends and relatives.
Finding me for its shelter, it has only me as its father, mother,
brother and member of the herd. Surely having no one else it puts
great faith in me as the support to rely upon and thus fully depends
on me for
its learning, sustenance, love and protection. I have got to admit that
is wrong to neglect someone who has taken shelter and must
act without regrets.
for it, should be fully
instructed by him in all the cleanliness, Vedic literature,
principles, sacrifice and service to the guru that belongs to the
celibate state [the brahmacarya-âs'rama], the brahmin who considered his son to be
his life breath,
in reality with this engagement
was heavily attached to his
household so that he,
when he [was seized] by death who was not as forgetful [as he was],
as a man full of frustration about the insistent faking of his son.
Vishnudatta ['protected by Vishnu'; Parîkchit], to those who are not perplexed this is not such
a great miracle. They who without animosity are of goodness to all are
by the Supreme Lord of the
invincible Time who carries the best of all weapons [the Sudars'ana
disc] personally fully liberated from the very strong and tight knot
in the heart [that is the consequence] of a false physical concept of
life. Even when
threatened by decapitation [or other attacks on their lives], those
liberated souls and devotees who
full of surrender are protected at His lotus feet are never upset by these kinds of emotional conditions; they have
nothing to fear.'
engagements of the mind are by the
material elements, by nature itself, by culture, by the karma and by
modified into the many hundreds,
thousands and millions [of considerations] that do not follow from one
another nor from
themselves, but [are caused by] the knower of the field.
is being meager, fat, tiny or big, existing as an individual entity,
inanimate matter or whatever natural phenomenon else that might be of
concern, all impermanence in the name of a certain place, time and
activity, an impermanence which you should understand to be [inherent
to] the operation of nature's duality.
also, in the dark of night driven by a momentary whirlwind of passion,
he copulates with an alluring woman. In total neglect of the
rules [a higher vision] he
then, blinded by the strength of that passion, notwithstanding the
divinities [of the sun and moon], loses all notion in being overcome by
full of lust.
because of the cakra of
the Controller, the
Supreme Lord Vishnu His cakra or disc of Time, the influence of which
stretches from the
first expansion of atoms to the duration of the complete life of
Brahmâ, one has to suffer the symptoms of its rotating, with
in due course, swiftly before one's eyes, without a blink, all lives of
the entities, from Brahmâ to the simplest blade of grass, are
spent. Directly for Him, the Controller whose personal weapon is the
disc of Time, one is afraid at heart. Not caring about the Supreme
Lord, the Original Person of Sacrifice, one accepts as worshipable that
misses any foundation, preoccupied as one is
with one's self-made gods who are
who are denied by the scriptures of
Supreme Lord resides in
Ketumâla in the form of
Kâmadeva [or also
Pradyumna, see 4.24: 35] according to His
wish to satisfy the Goddess of Fortune as well as the sons [the
and the daughters [the nights] of the founding father [Samvatsara, the
deity of the year] who rule the land and of whom there are as many as
there are days and nights in a human lifetime. The fetuses of these
daughters whose minds are upset by the radiation of the mighty weapon
[the cakra] of the Supreme Personality, are ruined and after one year
expelled dead [from the womb] as miscarriages.
Your countless different names, forms and features, the learned ones
derive their notion of numerical proportions, enumerations and
compositions, the truth of which they verify by observation. Unto Him
who thus discloses Himself in analysis, You, I offer my obeisances [see
also Kapila 3.28-33].
Having forsaken one's identification with the
body, one must, at the end of one's time [of living], with
a devotional attitude
concentrate one's mind upon You
who are transcendental to the material qualities. This forsaking
constitutes the perfection of the practice of yoga as explained by the
almighty Lord Brahmâ. A person driven
by desire thinks in fear about
the present and future of his children, wife and wealth, but anyone who
knows about the hopelessness of this vehicle of time, considers such endeavors only a
waste of time
because the body is lost in the end.
effulgence He divides the time in the light and dark period of the
[s'ukla and krishna]. May He, that divinity of the moon
and the grain to be distributed to the forefathers and the
gods, may that King of All People, remain favorably disposed unto us.'
dvîpa has one mountain range
Mânasottara that separates the varshas on the inner and
the outer side. Measuring a 10.000 yojanas high and wide,
it harbors in its four directions the cities of the four demigods
ruling there [Indra, Yama,
Varuna and Soma]. The chariot of the sun god Sûrya, circumambulating mount Meru on its highest point, moves
around in an orbit that
calculated in terms of the
days and nights of the demigods
[**] consists of one complete
S.B. 5.20: 40
having entered the lifeless
this globe at its time
of creation, he [Brahmâ] is known as Mârtanda ['the god of
the suns']. The designation known as Hiranyagarbha ['the gold inside'
Brahmâ] came about because he received his body from that [golden
thousand yojanas long, so the scholars teach us, one
on the east of Meru finds Devadhânî, the city of King
Indra, south of it the one named Samyamanî of Yamarâja, in
the west the one named Nimlocanî of
Varuna, and in the north the one of the moon named
Vibhâvarî. At all the four sides of Meru [as the energetic
creating sunrise, sunset, noontime and midnight, it brings about
the particular times of the living beings to be active or to cease
their activity [*].
solar year [a samvatsara]. Its axle is
fixed on the top of Meru with Mânasottara at the other end. The
wheel of the chariot of the sun being fixed there rotates to the
range of Mânasottara like a wheel of an oil press machine.
that he [S'uka] clearly stated: 'Just
can also be observed with the movement [of the sun
and the planets] in relation to Meru
of stars and the galaxy center].
With the stars moving around [that center], the two are
located at their right side, but
because of the individual movements of
the planets lead by the sun upon that rotating wheel of time, the sun
and planets that are observed in different mansions and constellations
evidently of another progress.
[that solar lead of time], this supremely powerful Original Person
who is Nârâyana Himself, the Supersoul of the three Vedic
who is there for the benefit and karmic purification of all the worlds,
is the cause sought by all saintly and Vedic knowing. He divides the
year, as He
thinks fit, in
its twelve parts and arranges the six seasons beginning with spring with their different
the Soul of all the
worlds, who [in the form of
the sun] has entered the wheel of time in a position between
heaven and earth, passes through the twelve divisions of the year consisting of the months that are named after
the signs of
zodiac. The scholars teach that they [according to the moon] are
divided in bright and dark halves or [fifteen day]
fortnights and that, following
the six portions of its orbit
called ritu or season calculated
stars each cover
two and a quarter constellations [thus one speaks of twelve or more
constellations]. They also say that the period
of time the sun moves
through [the visible] half of
outer space is called an ayana.
[More than] two hundred
thousand yojanas behind [the moon], there are [spinning] with
Meru to the right, to the many stars that by the Supreme Controller
attached to the wheel of time, the twenty-eight lunar mansions
above them [the stars of the sages] one
finds that supreme abode of Lord
Vishnu which is praised in the mantras
It is the
source of life of all entities that live from this moment till the end
of creation. There the great devotee Dhruva, the son of
Uttânapâda resides even today. His glory of obedient devotion I've described already. Agni, the fire-god, Indra the king of
heaven, the founding father who is the Prajâpati, Kas'yapa as
also Dharmarâja, in unison
respect move around that place keeping it to heir right [see 4-9]. For
restless luminaries such as the planets and the stars that place
incandescent radiating pivot
that is established by the Lord. The inconceivable, all-powerful force
of Time is considered the cause of their revolving. The luminaries keep their positions, just like three bulls that
for threshing rice are yoked to a central pole [at fixed distances]. Moving in their orbits they have a fixed position
relative to the inner and outer rims of the wheel of time, the same way
as the planets around the sun keep their positions. Holding on to
Dhruvaloka till the end of the creation, they revolve in the sky as if they're driven by the
wind, just like
heavy clouds and big birds do who controlled by the air move their
bodies around in respect of their previous positions. Thus the
luminaries behave consequentially, by the combined effort of material
nature and the Original Person, the way they always have and never
collide with the earth.
Some imagine this great army
of luminaries to be a s'is'umâra [a dolphin] and describe
it, concentrated in yoga, as [that what can be seen of] the Supreme
[see also a picture
as factually seen in a telescope].
This [form of S'is'umâra] certainly is
the form of the Supreme Lord, of Lord Vishnu who consists of all the
demigods. With that form before one's eyes one should each morning,
evening in all modesty meditate upon the following words: 'Our obeisances unto this resting place of all the
worlds, unto the master of the demigods, the Supreme Personality in the
form of Time upon whom we meditate' [namo jyotih-lokâya
kâlâyanâya animishâm pataye
mahâ-purushâya abhidhîmahîti, see also 2.2:
24]. Those who in respect
of that leader of the demigods consisting of all the planets and stars,
that destroyer of sin, practice the mantra as mentioned above by three
times a day offering their respects this way or by three times a day
[in silence], will by that respect of time very soon find all their
for the protection of both [these divinities] operates by the
supreme presence of the wheel of Time [the Sudars'ana Cakra]. This disc
is deemed the most dear, most devoted and favorite weapon that by
its power and unbearable heat makes Râhu, with a mind
full of fear and a bewildered heart, flee far away from that position
wherein he resides for
almost an hour and which by the people is called an eclipse.
one assuredly is of no concern about the
divisions of time relative to the
changes of night and day [as observed with sundials and lunar phases].
other cause of death than the
almighty wheel of Time in the form of His disc weapon is capable of
influencing them in any way.
practically always out of fear for the Lord His cakra order
[the compelling natural order of time] that the wives of
the godless ones lose their fetuses in
the welfare of the three worlds. But he as
the master and teacher of all sorcery by his grace obtained a
kingdom. Thus being protected by
Mahâdeva [the great god who is
S'iva] he thinks he has nothing to fear from the Sudars'ana Cakra [the
presence of the Lord in the form of Time] which [with clocks and calendars] is worshiped [in all worlds].
the wife or children of someone else is sure
to be bound with the fetters of time by the most terrible men of
Yamarâja and by force to be thrown into the hell of
Tâmisra ['the darkness']. Having landed in that darkest of all
conditions being deprived
sometimes, in his
desperation, loses his consciousness because of the
severe punishments received.
fire, the sky, the air, the gods, the moon, the evening, the day and
the night, the directions, the water and the land bears witness to [or
personal dharma [the very nature] of the embodied living entity [see
also B.G. 8: 4].
as the present time carries the
characteristics of what was and what will become, someone's present
birth likewise is indicative
of the dharma and adharma of what one did and will be doing.
with an equal vision are of surrender to the Supreme Lord and whose
sacred histories are proclaimed by the demigods and perfected ones, you
should never approach, for they are fully protected by the mace of the
Lord. It is not given to us to punish them, just as it isn't given to
time itself [to tell right from wrong].
the body,] was the field of action, the eternal cause engrossing the
individual soul that constitutes the basis of his bondage. What would
the use of time-bound labor be when one doesn't see the finality of it
sarvam nishkarshayaj jagat
kim asat-karmabhir bhavet
The so very
revolving wheel of Time governs all the world according to its own rule
and measure; of what use is it to endeavor in desire for results
in this world when one doesn't know about this [this order of time]?
How can one,
in the modes of nature [see B.G. 18: 19-29], undertake anything [like
begetting children], if one doesn't understand the instructions of the
scriptures of the Father that tell one how to put an end to the
material way of life?'
Kes'ava protect me with His club during the hours after sunrise, may
Govinda holding His flute protect me early in the morning, may
Nârâyana the Lord of all potencies, protect me late in the
and may Lord Vishnu the ruler with the
disc in His hand, protect me during the hours at noon [see also 5.21: 10]. May Lord
Madhusûdana with the
fearful bow S'ârnga protect me early in the afternoon. May
Mâdhava, the Lord of Brahmâ, Vishnu and S'iva, protect me
in the late afternoon and may Lord Hrishîkes'a protect me
during the hours at dusk. May Lord
Padmanâbha [the Lord from
whose navel the universe sprang] be the one
protector during the entire
evening early and late. May the Lord
with the S'rîvatsa mark protect me during the hours after
midnight, may Janârdana the Lord with the sword
in His hand protect me late at night and may Lord
Dâmodara protect me during the hours before dawn [during which
there is the brâhmamuhûrta **]. May
the Controller of the
Universe, the Supreme Lord in the form of time protect me [as
the kâla-mûrti, also the clock]. Please
rimmed [Sudars'ana] disc [His
order of time, the cyclic of natural time] that wielded by the Lord
destructively moves in all directions alike the fire at the end of
time, burn to ashes the enemy forces, the same way a blazing fire with
its friend the wind would burn dry
grass in an instant.
We pray that whatever
that is disturbing us [and our
devotion] will find
as a logical consequence of the fact that it is You, the Lord [of time]
alone who decides
what the ultimate reality would be of that what is and that what is not
[like happiness and grief coming and going, see B.G. 2: 14].
'You, oh Lord awarding the results of sacrifice, we offer our
obeisances. You using the cakra [the disc, the cyclic order of time] as
a weapon are the one to set the limits. All our respect for You who are
known by so many transcendental names.
really know whether Your Lordship is there like an ordinary human being
bound to actions in the material world, who under the influence of the
modes thus depends on time, space, activities and nature, and thereby
is forced to accept the good and bad results of his own actions, or
whether You are there as a completely self-satisfied
[âtmârâma] and self-controlled person who never fails
in his spiritual potency and is always a neutral witness.
certainly do not form a contradiction in You, the Fortunate One. For
what would be impossible to You whose attributes are unlimited, You who
are the Supreme Lord of unfathomable glories? You are by the
present-day thinkers doubted with opinions and arguments laid down in
scriptures containing judgments based upon halfhearted investigations
and fallacious logic. But You are out of the range of the agitated
minds of the obstinate theorists resorting to controversies. You
withdrawn from all of them are hidden from view behind Your bewildering
yoga potency, the incomparable and inscrutable potency [by which you
make and break]. You after all, are not divided in two natures.
Lord, what would we, as sparks of the original fire [the 'golden
seed'], now all have to tell You who personally are amused to be
engaged in creation, destruction and maintenance with Your divine
energy, You who as the Supersoul and spirit of the absolute Brahman
resides in the hearts of all the different living beings and externally
are present according to time, place and the physical constitution, You
whom one realizes as the cause of that what constitutes the [existence
and consciousness of the] living being, You, as the witness of
all that is going on, as the witnessing itself and the embodiment of
the eternal memory of the entire universe [the âkâs'a
in a net, all worlds and their rulers sigh powerlessly
under the time factor that is the cause out here. Peope not aware of that
[time factor, Him, de Lord of Time, the] strength of our
senses, mind, body, life force, death ànd
immortality, consider their indifferent body the cause. Oh
sir [dear Indra], please understand that all things thus o generous
one, just like
a wooden doll [a 'woman made of wood'] or a cuddy animal [of 'straw and
leaves'], depend on Îs'a [the Power, the Lord and
master of Time constituting their life and coherence].
12 & 13
time factor] one considers oneself - despite
being fully dependent - to be the one in
control, but it is He who creates beings by other living beings and it
is He who devours them through others. The blessings of longevity, opulence, fame and
arise when the time is ripe [His time], just as the opposite is found without
having chosen for it.
like grains of sand wash ashore and drift apart by the force of the
waves, the embodied souls are united and separated by time [compare
B.G. 2: 13].
time eventually all
people become each other's friends, family members, enemies, neutrals,
well-wishers, indifferent or envious ones [compare B.G. 3: 27].
Yours one is as a result of the deviating vision impure in one's
conduct, time bound and full of adharma
He, the One
Supreme Lord, by His potencies creates the conditioned existence of all
living beings as also the life of liberation [in devotional service].
He is the One responsible for the happiness and distress on the one
hand and the position in which one [with Him] is elevated above time on
the other hand.
person worships the Original Person he immediately gets a grip on his
life [as for time and measure]. And so it happened with Diti who for
almost a year had worshiped the Lord [see 5.18: 12]. In order to
compensate for the faults made by the mother the Lord changed the
forty-nine parts that Indra had created, the Maruts, into [the fifty]
demigods [together with Indra] who became soma-drinkers [priests].
According to the time of
prevalence one with the mode of sattva [goodness] finds the devas and
the rishis [the gods and sages], with the mode of rajas [passion] one
encounters Asuras [the unenlightened ones] and with the mode of tamas
[inertia] one is faced with Yakshas and Râkshasas [ghosts and
see also B.G. 14: 11-13].
ruler of man, the true cause that is the male principle, the original
unmanifest foundation of matter [pradhâna], is the [primal,
movement of time [as the fourth dimension] which forms the shelter of
the Lord [to meditate upon, see also B.G. 11: 32]. (12) Oh King,
being this [authentic notion of] Time, the Supreme Lord of name and
fame increases in the mode of goodness the numbers of enlightened souls
and is consequently, as the friend of the demigods, inimical to and
destructive with the unenlightened ones [the materialists] who are
ruled by passion and ignorance.
fire in wood can be observed
just as the air within the body and the
[time-effect of the] all pervading ether that does not mix with
anything. The same way the living entity can be separately
considered as transcendental to its
material encasement of involvement with the modes.
is what he thinks:] 'Lord
Brahmâ, who by his austerity absorbed in yoga created the moving
unmoving living beings [see 3.8],
dint of an even
more severe penance [than his] being absorbed in yoga, will from
the eternality of time and the soul, achieve the same for myself. Met
kracht zal ik deze wereld op zijn kop zetten en dat wat anders moet ook
anders dan voorheen aanpakken. Wat voor nut hebben al die andere
praktijken? Na een
dag van de schepping vaagt de tijd al die werelden van Vishnu toch weer
[Lord Brahmâ] under the
of time is covered by the dense darkness of ignorance, this cosmic creation
manifests [again] by the light
of the rays emanating from his body. This world endowed with the three
rajas, sattva and tamas [passion, goodness and
ignorance], is by him created, maintained and annihilated. That transcendental and supreme Lord I offer my
affected by anything are [the
personification of] the ever
vigilant Time that by each of its segments reduces the duration of life of
all beings. You are of this
material world the essential
cause of life, the Great Self and
Supreme Controller who was never born.
controller, the time factor, is Urukrama, the Lord of the Wide Steps
[Vâmana] who is that one strength of one's mind and life, the
steadiness of one's physical power and senses. He, the True Self, is
the Supreme Master of the three modes who by His different natural
forces creates, maintains and withdraws again the entire universe.
said: 'Our share of the sacrifices is recovered by Your Lordship
protecting us, o Supreme One. We have no words to describe how
afflicted our lotus-like hearts were by the Daitya, our hearts that really are Your
residence. Alas o Lord, how insignificant is our world in the grip of
Time, but for the sake of the devoted ones in Your service You have shed Your light so that they may find
liberation from their bondage. What else but considering the visible
world as unimportant would be
their way oh
keepers of the wealth [the Yaksha's] said: 'We, serving You to Your
pleasure belong to Your best followers. This son of Diti forced us to
carry his palanquin but caused the sorrow [the poverty] of each
and everyone. Thus we acknowledge You oh Lord Nrisimha,
for You are the one who
put him to death oh twenty-fifth principle [that is the Time, see 3.26: 10-15].'
godhead was by him, such a
little boy fallen at His lotus feet, greatly moved and filled with mercy He raised His lotus
hand, placed it on his
head and dispelled the fear for
the snake of time from all minds
situation it may concern, whatever
seems to be
the reason, whatever time it might be, by whatever agent and relating
to whatever agent, caused by whatever agent or for the sake of whatever
agent, whatever the way of something or of whatever nature
might be, is certainly all but another form of the Supreme Reality.
differently: in nature one finds because of all kinds of changes a
specific form of separateness, but whatever form it may concern, it is
always a manifestation of Your Lordship's energy. The
illusory of matter
creates a mind
that constitutes the source of difficult to control fruitive actions
[or karma]. These actions are conditioned by the Time that agitates the
modes of nature and is respected [in a certain way] by the person. Thus
being defeated by the alluring but deluding material energy one is
tied to the sixteen spokes [of the senses
of action and perception, the elements and the mind] of the wheel of
rebirth, oh Unborn One. Whoever can get out of this by anything else
but Your way [see also B.G. 9:
are that one
element of Time to the tender mercy of which the soul eternally is left
being defeated by the modes of Your rule. I here present as a form of
material energy who in all his forsaking and appearing is subjected to
Your cyclic control, am powerless oh Lord and Master. I am crushed
wheel with the sixteen spokes. Please help me, this soul of surrender,
to get out of this oh Almighty One.Oh
longevity, opulence and glory of the pious leaders of heaven. But our
father wishing this all [for himself] was simply by the provoked
laughter of Your expansion [as Nrisimha] in the blink of an eye pulled
down by You and completely vanquished. Therefore
as Lord Brahmâ or be rich and mighty. I know where all this
foolish blessing of the senses of the embodied being leads to. I have
no desire to be closed down by You who are so powerful as the Master of
Time. Please take me to the side of Your servants.
awakened from Your slumber on the
bed of Ananta in the causal ocean, the great lotus of all the worlds appeared from Your navel
like a banana tree does from its seed. That cosmic body of Yours,
this universe agitated by the Time factor, is Your way [in
of dealing with the
material affair [with
relishing [your retirement in] exhausting your
merit, by means of pious actions forsaking your impiety, by forsaking
the body with the rapid progress of time and after spreading your
reputation throughout even the worlds of the gods, you will, freed from
all attachment, turn back to Me.
It describes the character of the devotion,
spiritual knowledge and renunciation of that most exalted devotee
Prahlâda. Try to understand each of these stories and thus
discover what belongs to the Lord, the Master of maintenance, creation
and destruction, what His qualities and activities are, the wisdom
handed down [in disciplic succession] and how He, by the time factor,
stands for the finality of all the higher and lower living beings and
their cultures, however great they might be.
Oh ruler of man, with the arrows joined on his
bow Lord S'iva thus being the Master and Controller, at noon set the so
difficult to pierce three cities afire.
The above [in verse 6] described directions of
guru for the householder apply equally to the renunciate soul, be it
that the householder can have sexual intercourse for a certain period
of time [see also B.G. 7: 11].
He should not rejoice in the death of the body
certain, nor in the life of the body that is uncertain, instead he
should observe the supreme [command] of Time that rules the
manifestation and disappearance of all living beings.
He who lives for the money is always afraid of
government, of thieves, of enemies, relatives, animals and birds, of
beggars, of Time and of himself.
When one according to
time [on 'sundays'],
company of others completely being relieved of material [karmic]
activities, hears the nectar of the narrations about the Lord His
will by such good company being separated from the physical association
with one's wife and children, gradually be freed from one's desires
[and pride] like awakening from a dream [see also 5.5:
1 and B.G. 18:
On the threefold path
artha and kâma] not being too zealous [not engaging
in ugra-karma] a person, notwithstanding his concerns about his
household, should obtain only as much as the grace of God would provide according to time and circumstance [see also 4.8:
is [de waarde van] de
aan dit onbeduidende voertuig van de tijd dat is gedoemd te worden
gegeten door de insecten of om tot ontlasting en tot as te vergaan? Wat
is de waarde van het gehecht zijn aan het lichaam van je vrouw,
vergeleken bij de waarde van je aantrekking tot de ziel die net als de
ether alles doordringt?
by these auspicious times [of being
regular to natural occurrences] that the fate of human beings is
improved. For the
human being during all seasons
to have auspiciousness,
those days must perform all kinds of ceremonies [*]. At
all these natural times taking a holy
bath, doing japa [the Vedic rosary], performing fire sacrifices
and keeping to vows, constitutes with whatever that is given in respect
of the Supreme Lord, the
twice-born ones managing the deities, the forefathers, the godly ones,
beings in general and all other living beings, a permanent benefit. Oh
King, the purification
rituals that serve the interest of [having days with] the wife, the
children and oneself
also the interest of having funerals, memorial days and days for doing
fruitive labor must be performed at the [natural] times [relative to
and moon] meant for them.
entrusts the sacrificing
in faith [the s'raddha
ceremony] to a greater number of them and their [accompanying]
relatives, things will not work out
perfectly as for the most suitable time and place, the paraphernalia,
the person to receive the honor and the method applied.
person and he who
considers him and what he heard from him as mortal and time-bound is
elephant that has bathed [and thereafter takes a dust bath].
One has wasted one's
time when all the
prescribed activities and observances, designed for the definite
subjugation of the six departments [of the five senses and the mind],
have not lead to the ultimate goal: the connectedness in yoga [of
the individual consciousness with Him].
The fine substances [of
the sacrifice] result in the
smoke [that is associated
with] the divinity of the night, the dark
half of the month, the sun going through the south and the new moon
[compare B.G. 8: 25]. By this divinity [one finds] the food
[by feeding us through
sacrifices] lead to one after
the other birth, to
the again and again, regular assuming of
a physical form to be present in this world [see also B.G. 9:
lichaam bestaande uit de vijf elementen kan niet bestaan zonder de
zinsobjecten die er deel van uitmaken. Het onware is gelegen in de
gefixeerde vorm van een lichaam dat, net als dat wat er deel
van uitmaakt, uiteindelijk een tijdverschijnsel
blijkt te zijn.
king, a person should perform his duties according
to his [varnâs'rama] position in society, engaging
with the means, the place and the time that are not [scripturally]
forbidden and he should not follow any other course unless there is an
emergency [see also 7.11: 17 en B.G. 3: 35].
He, the Lord,
protects anyone who is
of surrender. He protects those who are afraid of death against the so very
strong serpent of time that
chases someone endlessly with its terrifying force [see B.G. 11:
32]. I surrender to Him who
is the refuge and for whom even death flees away.'
I do not want to live
this in the world. What is the use of this captivation from
within and from without in being
born as an elephant? I do not
want the misery and destruction
because of the time factor. I want to be liberated from that covering
of my spiritual existence [see
us offer our
obeisances to the truth of Him, whom
wheel of Time with its fifteen
spokes [the knowing and working senses and
the five airs], three naves [the modes] and eight
segments [the five elements, mind, false ego and intelligence] that
feed one's thought process
[compare 3.21: 18, 7.9:
21, 5.21: 13
and B.G. 18:
is there from His
lower lip and affection from His upper lip, from His nose there is the
elements, their weaver [kâla, time], fruitive labor
[karma], the modes of nature [the gunas] and the individual
differences brought about by His
creative potency [yoga-mâyâ],
difficult to fathom completeness from which the great
sages turn away [in their aversion against the delusional quality
the material world]. May He,
the Controller of All and Everything, be contented with us.
slightest activity properly performed [for Your sake] is in vain,
dedicated to the Controller [who is the Time] You are realized
Original Soul friendly and beneficial to all
not fear the kâlakûtha ['false time'] poison that will
appear from the
ocean of milk, and take care not to be led by greed, lust or anger with
the result of the churning.'
You are the source of
the [spiritual, Vedic] sound, the origin of the
universe, the soul, the life breath, the senses and the elements. You
modes of nature and the natural disposition, the eternal time, the
sacrifice and the dharma of truth [satya] and
truthfulness [rita]. It is unto you that one utters the original
syllable consisting of the three letters [A-U-M]. Oh
soul of all the godly ones, fire constitutes your mouth; oh Lord of all
the worlds the surface of the globe
is known as your lotus feet; oh self of the gods, time constitutes your
movement, the directions are your
ears and the controller of the waters [Varuna] is your taste.
In this world that has
originated from you
and at the time of her destruction is burned to ashes by you with the
the fire emanating from your eyes, you have out of your mercy for the
living beings annihilated Tripura [7.10:
53] as also
put an end to the sacrifices out of desire [see e.g. 4.5],
the poison of [false] time [in this story]
many other forms of misery. But these matters are not part of your praises, since you ban this world from your mind.
Someone might be of dharma but is he
friendly towards other living beings? Someone can be of renunciation
but he might miss the cause of liberation. A person may have power over
people, but he is still not released from the great force of material
nature [from the power of time]. Someone may be free from the influence
of the modes of nature but never be a second one [another Lord of Control and Yoga, see also 1.2:
how to behave and be happy, someone may
master the art
of living but still not know how to get old. And when someone knows the
both of them, such a person still might be unlucky in another respect.
Nor is of someone excelling
in all walks of life said that he wishes Me [in my position of devotion
Bali retorted: 'All
present here on this battlefield are subjected to the rule of time and
successively acquire with what they do a reputation, achieve a victory,
suffer defeat and find their death. (8) Because the entire world is
moved by time, an enlightened soul who sees this will not rejoice or
complain. In that sense you all have pretty much lost your way [compare
B.G. 2: 11]!
The moment one [living] with the time and all
different elements, is joined with Me in the form of Eternal Time [or
the pure Time Spirit], that illusory energy of the modes of nature [the
goddess Durgâ in sum*] will no longer be able to bewilder you.'
the form of the founding
fathers [the Prajâpatis] He creates offspring, to annihilate the
miscreants He assumes the form of kings and in the form of time He is there
You as the original cause, the dissolution and
maintenance of the universe, are the reservoir of endless potencies
that one calls the Original Person. You are the Lordship, the
Controller who is the Time that holds the entire universe in its grip,
the way waves drag someone along who fell into them.
Seeing him with the trident in his hand coming
Him like death personified the Chief of the Mystics, the Knower of
Time, Lord Vishnu, thought the following. 'Wherever I go this one -
like the death of each - will also go. I will enter his heart
therefore, he only looks outside of himself.'
Formerly time worked in our favor and brought us
victory over the gods, but today time, which indeed is the Greatest
Power [the Supreme Authority] in our existence, works against us. (22)
No man is able to surpass the time factor by any power, counsel,
cleverness, fortifications, spells, herbs, diplomacy or by whatever
other means or likewise schemes.
None of the controllers of the worlds will be
able to overrule your command there, not to speak of the common man,
for I with my cakra will personally take care of all the Daityas who
defy your rule.
As for the time and place, the person, the
paraphernalia, [the practice of] the mantras and following the
principles, faults can be made, but these are all nullified by
regularly chanting Your glories in congregation [*].
S'iva being pleased with him oh servant of the
state, in order to keep his promise [to Umâ] and to show the sage
his love, said: 'This disciple of your line will one month be a female
and the next month be a male. Sudyumna may with this arrangement [then]
rule the world as he likes.'
The so highly intelligent descendants of
[see 6.6: 19] are today performing a sacrifice, but on every sixth day
they do this oh learned one, they will fall in illusion with their
Pleased with his unalloyed devotional service
gave him His cakra [disc weapon] that protects the devotees but is so
fearful to the ones opposing Him [see also 7.9: 43 and B.G. 9: 31].
Lord Brahmâ said: 'At the end of my
dvi-parârdha, see 3.11: 33] when His pastimes have ended, the
Lord of the End Time [Vishnu], the Self of Time, with a single movement
of His eyebrows will destroy this universe including my heavenly abode.
I, Lord S'iva, Daksha, Bhrigu and the other sages, as also the rulers
of man, the rulers of the living beings and the rulers of the demigods,
all carry out His orders and together bow, for the salvation of all
living beings, our heads in surrender to the principle regulating our
lives.' Durvâsâ who, scorched by Vishnu's cakra, was turned
down by Lord Brahmâ, went for his shelter to him who always
resides on Kailâsa [Lord S'iva]. S'rî S'ankara [S'iva]
said: 'My dear one, we have no power over the Supreme One, the
Transcendence in Person with whom I, the other living beings and even
Lord Brahmâ wander around within the countless universes that
together with us at times arise and are destroyed again. I, Sanat and
the other Kumâras, Nârada, the great Unborn Lord, Kapila,
Vyâsadeva, Devala [the great sage], Yamarâja, Âsuri
[the saint], Marîci and other masters of perfect knowledge headed
by him, have learned to know the limits of all there is to know, but
none of us can fully comprehend His illusory energy [of
mâyâ] and that what is covered by it. The weapon of the
Controller of the Universe [the cakra] is even for us difficult to
handle and you should therefore seek your refuge with the Lord who will
certainly bestow upon you His happiness and fortune.'
All my respects for you, the auspicious center
spin, the measure for the complete of nature who are like a fire of
destruction to the unenlightened ones who lack in pious conduct. You,
the keeper of the three worlds with a wonderful effulgence, are of a
supreme goodness and act as fast as the mind I try to voice
He also in full awareness of the
[Super]soul worshiped Yajña, the Lord of Sacrifices, the God and
Supersoul of everyone elevated above the sensual plane. This happened
in sacrificial ceremonies that were attended by all the godly people
whom he rewarded with large donations. The ingredients, the mantras and
the regulative principles, the worship and the worshiper as also the
priests in their dharma of proceeding according to the time and place,
all together contributed to assure that the interest of the true self
was done justice.
With his mind thus
controlled by the affection for his son, he cheated the god with words
about the time [that it would take] and made him wait.
His son Dilîpa did just like his father
not succeed and was also defeated by time. Thereafter Dilîpa's
son Bhagîratha performed severe austerities.
My helpless wife, I, as Time itself, as someone not failing
in His heroism, will personally punish you today for that shameless
act, you abominable evildoer [see also B.G. 16: 6-18]!
that living with friends and relatives who are all subjected to the
control of the rigid laws of nature [Time], is alike associating with
travelers at a water place that [according to one's karma] was created
by the Lord's illusory potency. The daughter of S'ukrâcârya
gave up all her attachments in this dreamlike world, fixed her mind
fully on Lord Krishna and shook off the worries [of both the gross and
the subtle nature; the linga] of her self. (29) I offer You my
obeisances, oh Supreme Lord Vâsudeva, Creator of All who reside
in all beings and abodes. My respects for You who in perfect peace are
the Greatest of All!'
The king well aware of
what would befit the time and place, said yes and then married
according to the rules of dharma with S'akuntalâ in the gandharva
way [of mutual consent].
Brihadratha begot with a
second wife he had a son in two halves who, because the mother rejected
them, by Jarâ [the daughter of Time, see also 4.27: 19] playfully
were united while she said: 'Come alive, come alive'. Thus a son called
Jarâsandha ['Jarâ's hermaphrodite'] was born [who later
became a vital enemy of Lord Krishna].
Mijn grootvaders [de Pândava's] staken op het slagveld met
onoverwinnelijke strijders als Devavrata [Bhîshma] en andere
grote bevelhebbers die waren als timingila's [haaieneters], in het
verleden met behulp van de boot die Hij is net zo gemakkelijk de zo
moeilijk te overwinnen oceaan van Kauravasoldaten over als men over de
hoefafdruk van een kalf heen stapt. Dit lichaam van mij, het enige
zaadje dat nog over is van de Kuru's en Pândava's, raakte
geschroeid door As'vatthâmâ's wapen toen ik me bevond in de
schoot van mijn moeder, maar werd door Hem met de cakra in Zijn hand
beschermd omdat zij haar toevlucht tot Hem had genomen [zie 1.8: 11 en
1.12: 7]. O man van scholing, beschrijf alstublieft de glorie van de
Heer die op eigen kracht verscheen als een normaal menselijk wezen, van
Hem die het eeuwige leven en de dood schenkt zoals men dat zegt, van
Hem die verschijnt in gedaanten gebonden aan de Tijd, van Hem die de
Oorspronkelijke Persoon is die aanwezig is zowel binnen als buiten al
de belichaamde wezens.
Voordat we hier kwamen wist de
Persoonlijkheid van God al van het leed van moeder aarde. Hij is van
zins om samen met uw goede zelf als Zijn delen zich te manifesteren
door geboorte te nemen in de familie der Yadu's. Hij wil dat jullie er
met Hem zijn [voor de vervulling van Zijn missie] zolang Hij, de Heer
der Heerscharen, zich met Zijn vermogen van de Tijd op deze aarde
rondbeweegt om de last van de planeet terug te dringen.
When after millions and millions of years the cosmos runs at its end
and the primary elements merge with their primal forms and everything
that manifested by the force of Time turns into the unmanifest, You oh
Lord with the Many Names, are the only one to remain. This so powerful
Time factor by which, from the smallest measure of
time up to the measure of a year, this entire creation works, is said
to be Your action, the movement of You, the secure abode, the Supreme
Controller whom I offer my surrender.
are the One for all living beings, You are the master of the life
force, of the body, of the soul and the senses. You are the Time, the
Supreme Lord Vishnu, the Imperishable Controller. You as the
One who are both the cosmic creation and the subtle reality, You
consisting of passion, goodness and slowness, are the Original
Personality, Overseer and the Knower of the restless mind in all fields
[Nanda's elder brother], the oldest and wisest one with the greatest
experience, said in that meeting what, according to the time and
circumstances, to the interest of Râma and Krishna would be the
thing to do:
great sages. You oh Supreme
Controller, only You are the One who manifests Himself in all the
diversity of existence. How can You be everything that exists at the
same time? Tell Me, what exactly is Your word to this?' By saying these
words Baladeva then with His Lordship arrived at an understanding of
the situation [**].
were worshiped by the time factor [kâla], the individual nature
[svabhâva], the reform by purification [samskâra], desire
fruitive action [karma], the modes [guna] and other powers the glory of
whose appearances was defeated by His greatness [see also B.G. 13: 22].
pray for You as
Time, for You as
the Certainty with the Time and for You as the Witness of all
Time measures. Our prayers are there for You in the Form of the
You as the One Supervising it All,
for You as the Creator and for You who are the Final Cause of the
are the Almighty Lord of
the Creation, Maintenance and Destruction of this universe who,
beginningless and without acting with the modes, with the potency of
Time endeavors [to promote the balance] in relation to the modes. While impeccably playing Your game, You by Your glance awaken the distinctive dormant
characteristics of each of these [modes].
are the Almighty Lord of
the Creation, Maintenan
Oh Creator, oh Lord of the Time and the Seasons, You are the
one who generated this universe filled with the appearances of the
natural modes endowed with different personal propensities in varieties
of talents and physical capabilities, wombs and seeds, with different
mentalities and forms.
Please protect us, Your people, Your friends,
this insurmountable [deadly] fire of Time . Oh Master, we at Your
benevolent, blessed feet that drive away all fear, are incapable [to
escape from here]!'
The roads no longer used faded away being
grass, just like written texts do that, not being studied by the
brahmins, wither away under the influence of time.
Even though the place and time, the items used,
hymns, the rituals, the priests and the fire, the officiating
God-conscious ones, the performer of the sacrifice, that what was
sacrificed and the dharmic result are all part of the directly visible
reality of His Absolute Truth, of Him, the Supreme Lord Beyond the
Senses, they with their borrowed intelligence considered Him arrogantly
just an ordinary person.
He constitutes the place and time, the
used, the hymns, the rituals, the priests and the fire, the officiating
God-conscious ones, the performer of the sacrifice, the performance and
its dharmic result [see verse 10-11]. He, the Supreme Lord Vishnu, the
Master of all Yoga Masters, has directly visible taken birth among the
Yadus, but despite having heard about this we foolishly failed to
rî S'uka said: 'When Nanda and the elders
these words being spoken by the Supreme Lord, by the Time in person in
order to break the pride of Indra, they accepted them as excellent.
Als een babytje met nauwelijks de ogen open zoog
[de vergiftigde melk] uit de borst van de o zo machtige
Pûtanâ en zoog Hij daarmee ook haar levensadem weg, net
zoals de macht van de tijd de jeugd uit het lichaam wegzuigt [zie 10.6].
You are the father and the guru of the entire
universe, the Original Lord and the insurmountable Time who, when You
by Your own decision assume Your transcendental forms, strives to be
the authority to eradicate the self-conceit of the ones who think they
are the Lord of the Universe.
When he saw the two approaching like Time and
personified, he became afraid. In his confusion he left the women
behind and ran for his life.
When you have brought Them here I will have Them
killed by the elephant that is as mighty as the time itself. And if
They manage to escape that, my wrestlers who are as strong as lightning
will put an end to Them.
Then I will see You as the
Arjuna assume the form of Time in bringing about the destruction of the
armed forces of this world.
But enough of that, even for a fallen soul like
there is a chance to acquire the audience of Acyuta. Some time someone
pulled along by the river of time may reach the other shore!
And when I have fallen at the base of His feet,
Almighty One will place upon my head His lotus hand that dispels the
fear for the serpent of time, the snake because of whose swift force
the people terrified seek shelter.
Thus being threatened the elephant keeper got
and goaded the furious elephant that was like Yama, Time and death, in
the direction of Krishna.
When Krishna heard this
He, welcoming the
fight and [thus] considering it
desirable, spoke words befitting
time and place [see also 4.8:
Krishna, the Supreme Lord Hari, saw how
his army, like an ocean that overflowed its boundaries, besieged His
city and filled His subjects with fear, He as the Ultimate Cause in a
Human Form, considered what, to the purpose of His descent into this
world, would be the best course of action considering the time and
18 & 19
Your children, your queens
and your other
relatives, ministers, advisors and subjects do not live anymore. Time
has swept them away. The
Supreme, Inexhaustible Lord of
Control is the Time itself, more
powerful than the most powerful ones, who, playing a game of herdsman
and flock, sets the mortal
beings in motion.
place in respect of the three aspects
time [past, present,
future] oh King, can reach the end [compare 8.5:
6 and 8.23: 29].
never lament or rejoice, for I know that the world is driven by Time
enemies, with the time in their
favor, have won now, but then again, when
our time has come, we will win.'
create oh Master, You stand out as being the Unborn One [as
the purpose of annihilation You adopt the mode of ignorance [as S'iva]
and for the sake of maintenance You
are [manifested as] the goodness [as the Vishnu-avatâras]
the Universe. [Yet You are] not covered [by these modes] oh Lord of
Jagat [the Living Being that is the Universe]. Being Kâla [time],
Pradhâna [the unmanifested state of matter, the primal ether] and
Purusha [the Original Person] You nevertheless exist independently
Supreme Soul of all the Worlds who gives Himself away and about whose prowess the sages speak who
were for that reason chosen by me in
rejection of those masters of heaven - the one born on the lotus
and the one ruling existence [S'iva]. What would my interest be in
others whose aspirations are
destroyed by the force
approach You for being the
of this mâyâ, this material bewilderment of time,
the individual propensities, the subtle
elements, the field [that is
the body], the life force [prâna], the self, the
transformations [the eleven
senses] and the aggregate of
all of this [in the form of the subtle body called the linga].
be unknown to You
oh Master, oh Witness of the Mind of all Beings whose vision is not
impeded by time? Nevertheless I will speak as You wish.
wondrously inescapable Time moves on. That what is a
shoe now wants to step on a head that is ornamented with a
sons in accordance
the vidhi, at
the right time, with wives and
compatible to them.
Vaidarbhî [Rukminî] did not like that most auspicious time
of the day because she then would have to miss the embrace of her
beloved [Krishna]. Mâdhava
rose during the brâhma-muhûrta
[the hour before sunrise], touched water and cleared His mind to
meditate upon the
unequaled, exclusive, self-luminous Self beyond all dullness of matter.
This True Self dispels, infallible as it is, by its [His] own nature
perpetually the impurity and gives the joy of existence. It is known as
the Brahman that, with its [His] energies, constitutes the cause of
the creation and the destruction of this universe [see also 3.29: 31
6 and *].
The whole world delighting
in misconduct is bewildered about the duties
out here to be of one's own worship for You according to Your [varnâs'rama] command. May there be the obeisances
unto You, the Ever Vigilant ['unblinking eye of Time'] who all of a
sudden [at the time of one's
death] cuts off that headstrong
for longevity in this life.
are but the instruments, in universal creation and annihilation, of the Supreme Lord of the Universe,
of You in the form of formless Time.
who in the past, in our lusting about
wealth, were blinded and quarreled with each other about ruling this
earth, have very mercilessly harassed our citizens oh Master and have
[You in the form of] death standing before us, arrogantly disregarded
You. We oh
Krishna, have been forced to part with our opulence and were hurt in
our pride by Your mercy in the form of the irresistible power of the
Time that moves so mysteriously. We beg You to allow us to live in
the remembrance of Your feet.
said: 'The son of Prithâ thus having spoken, chose at a proper
time for the sacrifice, with the permission of Krishna, the priests who
were suitable, brahmins who were Vedic experts:
of the Sâtvatas. He
stands for all the demigods as also the place, the time and the
paraphernalia and such.
is the unavoidable controller, has by this been
proven, for even the intelligence of the elders could be led
astray by the words of a boy!
As he ran
carrying his club, Krishna severed his arm with a bhalla cutting
Looking like a
mountain beneath a rising sun, He shone with a radiation resembling
the light at the end of time.
His fame as praised in the
Vedas, the water
washing from His feet and the words of the revealed scriptures
thoroughly purify this universe [see also B.G. 15:
15]. Even though her wealth
had been ravaged by Time, the
earth's vitality has been awakened by the touch of His
lotus feet with her fulfilling all our desires like an abundance of
rain. By seeing Him in person, by touching Him and walking with Him,
conversing, lying down, sitting, eating, being bound through marriage
with Him and having Him as a blood-relative, you [normally] following
hellish path of family life have now found Vishnu, liberation
and heaven [in person] who constitutes the cessation [of one's
searching in life. See
also 5.14 and 7.14 and B.G. 11: 41-42].'
By the light of Your personal form we are released
from the bonds of the three [states] of material consciousness
[wakefulness, dreaming and sleeping]. Being totally immersed therein,
we are of spiritual happiness having bowed down to You, the goal of the
perfected saints [the paramahamsas], who by the power of Your illusion
have assumed this form for the protection of the unlimited and ever
fresh Vedic knowledge that is threatened by time.'
the fire, the sun, the moon nor the firmament, neither the earth, the
water, the ether, the breath, the speech nor the mind take, when they
are worshiped, away the sins of someone entangled in material
opposites. But they are wiped away by just a few moments of service to
men of [brahminical] learning.
these kings who enjoy Your company, nor the Vrishnis, know You hiding
behind the curtain of mâyâ, as the Supreme Soul, the Time
and the Lord [B.G. 6: 26].
quality of [the Lord] His awareness is never disturbed by
time-dependent matters like the creation, destruction and so on of this
universe, not by its own activity nor by another agency [see B.G. 4: 14
and 10: 30]. The consciousness of Him, the One Controller without a
Second, is not affected by hindrances, material actions and their
consequences and the natural modes with their flow of changes [kles'a,
karma and guna]. Others [though] may consider Him as being covered by
His own expansions of prâna and other elements of nature, just
like the sun is hidden by clouds, snow or eclipses.'
intelligent person should renounce the desire for wealth by means of
sacrifices and charity. He should give up the desire for a wife and
kids by engaging in temple affairs. With the help of [the cakra order
of] Time [and also as being the destroyer of all worlds, see also 9.5
and B.G. 3: 16] he should forget the desire for a world for himself oh
Vasudeva. All sages renounced their [three types of] desires for a
household life and went into the forest for doing penances [see also
B.G. 2: 13].
Having taken birth from me You have now descended
because of the kings who, living in defiance of the scriptures and with
their good qualities destroyed by the time [of Kali-yuga], became a
burden to the earth
May there be my obeisances unto You, who are the
Supersoul for the knowers of the Supreme Spirit and the One who [in the
form of Time **] brings death to the conditioned soul, You, the One who
assumes the forms of effect as also the forms of cause, You whose
vision is not covered by Your deluding potency but who are covered to
King, when Krishna took His birth among the Yadus He outshone the
pilgrimage site of the heavenly river [the Ganges] that washes from His
feet. Because of His embodiment friends and foes attained their goal
[7.1: 46-47]. The undefeated and supremely perfect goddess S'rî
belongs to Him, she for whom others are struggling. His name being
heard or chanted is what destroys the inauspiciousness. He settled the
dharma for the lines of [disciplic] succession [the schools of the
sages]. With Lord Krishna holding the weapon that is the wheel of Time
[His cakra], it is no wonder that the burden of the earth was removed
[see also 3.2: 7-12].
soon will die, has an
inkling of the One Who Came First from whom the [leading] seer
[Brahmâ] arose who was followed by the two groups of demigods
[controlling the senses and the principles. See B.G. 7: 26]? When He
lies down to withdraw, at that time nothing remains of the gross and
the subtle, nor of that what comprises them both [the bodies] and the
flow of Time and the S'âstras are also no longer there [B.G. 9:
countless embodied beings wouldn't be time-bound, would the omnipresent
consequently not be such a sovereign rule, o Unchanging One. Because
the substance cannot be independent from that from which it was
generated [ - pradhâna, timespace, primeval ether -] must [You]
the regulator [of Time] be known as being equally present everywhere
and not as being somewhere else. For that reason is one mistaken
supposing that one knows [the complete of You], since one is of the
imperfect [local order] with what one is knowing [see 6.5: 19].
at a particular point in time. Not originating as such [from one or the
other] it is from the combination of these two [primordial elements]
that living bodies find their existence in You, just as bubbles find
their existence as a combination of water and air. And just as rivers
merge into the ocean and all flavors [of flower nectar] merge into the
honey, these living beings with all their different names and qualities
[in de end] merge [again] into [You,] the Supreme [see also B.G. 9: 7].
beings and frequently render traditional service unto You, the source
of liberation. How could there for the ones who faithfully follow You
be any kind of fear about a material existence, a fear that by the
three rimmed [wheel of Time - of past, present and future] - by Your
furrowing eyebrows - repeatedly is raised in those who do not take
shelter of You [see also B.G. 4: 10, 7: 14 & 14: 26]?
the end of Your glories
oh Unlimited One, oh You within whom the many universes by the drive of
Time, each in their own shell, are blown about in the sky like
particles of dust. The s'rutis bearing fruit by [neti neti] eliminating
that what is not the Absolute Truth, find in You their ultimate
conclusion [see siddhânta].'
in the house of the lord of the Yadus [Vasudeva] having performed most
favorable rituals to bestow piety and take away the impurities of
Kali-yuga, the sages Vis'vâmitra, Asita, Kanva,
Durvâsâ, Bhrigu, Angirâ, Kas'yapa, Vâmadeva,
Atri, Vasishthha, Nârada and others, were by The Soul of Time
[Lord Krishna] sent away to go to Pindâraka [a pilgrimage site].
though the Supreme Lord very well knew what it all meant, He did not
want to reverse the curse of the scholars and, in His form of Time,
the dissolution of the material elements is near the [Lord in the form
of] Time that is Without a Beginning or an End, withdraws the manifest
universe consisting of the gross objects and subtle modes [back] into
the unmanifest [see also 3.29: 40-45, 3.26: 51].
by darkness deprived of its [quality, its] form, turns into air and the
air, losing its [quality of] touch, dissolves into the ether. When the
sky [the ether], by the Supreme Soul of Time is deprived of its quality
[of sound], it merges into the ego [of not-knowing].
like oxen bound
by a rope through their nose. Being controlled by Time they trouble
each other. May the lotus feet of You, the Supreme Personality
transcendental to both material nature and the individual person, bring
us transcendental happiness [compare 1.13: 42, 6.3: 12].
You are the cause of the creation, maintenance
annihilation of this [universe]. You are the cause of the unseen, the
individual soul and the complete whole of the manifest reality. They
say that You, this very same personality, are the time factor
controlling all who appears as a wheel divided in three [summer, winter
and spring/autumn]. One says that You are the Supreme Personality who
in the form of Time uninterrupted in Your flow effects the decay of
living being [beginning with Mahâ-Vishnu] acquires its power
[potency] from that [time aspect] of Yours. You establish the vastness
of matter with it [mahat-tattva]. United with that same nature You
therefrom generate - the way an ordinary fetus is produced - the golden
primeval egg of the universe endowed with its [seven] outer layers [see
Just as the realm of the ether is not touched by
winds that blow the clouds, a person [in his real self] is not affected
by his physical bodies consisting of fire, water and earth that are
moved by Time according to the modes of nature.
imperceptible in its grond of being are there, as with the moon,
beginning with being born and ending with the cremation, the states of
the body in its different phases; but none of these are of the soul
[B.G. 2: 13, 2: 20]. Time urging, speeding as a flood, with its
constant birth and demise of the created that like the flames are to a
fire, is, from the perspective of the soul, not to be seen though [*]. A yogi accepting the material
objects to his senses at the right time [to the cakra] gives them up;
he doesn't get entangled in them just as the sun doesn't with its rays
entering the waters [evaporating it and returning it again with the
How little happiness gave me the sensual
the men who pleased my senses? To have a wife or [even the grace of]
the gods has, being spread in time, all its beginning and its end.
one has fallen in the well of a material existence, by sensual
pleasures has been robbed of one's insight and is caught in the grip of
the snake of Time, who else but the Original Lord, would deliver one's
soul [see also 10.34]? The moment a soul attentively sees the universe
as seized by the snake of Time, he being sober will detach from
everything material and be suitable to serve as his own protector.'
Self, the One Lord without a second who became the Foundation and
Reservoir of All, is Nârâyana, the Godhead who by His own
potency created the universe in the beginning and by His potency of
Time withdraws His creation within Himself at the end of the kalpa.
When the material powers of sattva and so on, are balanced by the time
factor that is the potency of the True Self [the Soul, the Lord], the
Original Personality, the purusha is found as the Supreme Controller,
the Lord of both the primary nature [pradhâna] and the person.
He, the worshipable object of all conditioned and transcendental souls
has His existence in the purest experience that one describes as
kaivalya [or beatitude], the fulness of the blissful state without
[guna] attributes [see also B.G. 7: 5 and *]. By means of the pure
potency of His Self, His own bewildering energy composed of the three
modes, He oh subduer of the enemies, at the onset of creation agitating
[in the form of Time], manifests the plan of matter [the sûtra,
the thread, the rule or direction of the mahat-tattva, see also 3.26:
controllers and enjoyers of karma there is of course the eternal
duality of happiness and grief, time and place, to have and to be. When
you take all that is matter for eternal and complete, your intelligence
is ruled by all the different forms and changes belonging to it.
All living beings thinking thus oh Uddhava, again and again will find
themselves being born [fall ill, die] and so on [see 3.11], after all,
being united with a form one is bound to the [conditioning] limbs of
time [of sun and moon, day and night etc.].
After for long having enjoyed the heavens until
pious credits were used up, having exhausted his merits he against his
will falls down from heaven, [not properly fixed] being forced from his
course by time [compare B.G. 9: 20-22].
In all the worlds exists fear of Me [in the form
Time] among all their leaders; the individual souls living as long as a
kalpa fear Me and even the one supreme, Brahmâ who lives for two
parârdhas, fears Me [see also 1.13: 17-20, 3.8: 20, 3.11: 33,
3.25: 42, 3.26: 16, 3.29: 37, 3.29: 40-45, 5.24: 15, 5.24: 28].
As long as one is not free from this dependence
will be fear for the Lord and Controller [who is the Time]. They [then]
who enjoy this [karmic bond] will become bewildered and always be full
of sorrow. With the given reciprocal action [or the operation] of the
modes of nature, one calls Me variously the Time, the Soul, the Vedic
Knowledge, the World, [the original nature or] Nature [at large], as
also the Dharma.'
The doctrine [followed], [the way one deals
water, the people [one associates with], one's surroundings and [the
way one behaves with] time, one's [occupational] activities, one's
birth [or social background], as also [the type of] meditation, mantras
and purificatory rites [one respects] are the ten [factors] determining
the [prominence of a particular] mode.
the sitting postures [âsana], one should
attentively, step by step, without slackening gather one's mind by
concentrating on Me at appointed times [to the positions of the sun and
the moon, see B.G. 7: 8 and 5: 26-28].
supreme element of the smallest elements [the atoms], the subtle
property of Time [see also cakra].
one focusses one's consciousness on Vishnu, the Original Controller of
the Three [gunas, see also B.G. 7: 13] who is the mover in the form of
Time, one will obtain the siddhi of îs'itvâ [the supremacy]
by means of which the conditioned body [the field] and its knower can
be controlled [*].
pure of character who by dint of his devotion unto Me knows how to
focus his mind [dhâranâ] acquires insight in the three
phases of time [past, present and future] supported by knowledge of
birth and death [see tri-kâlika].
One says [though] that they [these
siddhis], for the one who practices the highest form of yoga - the
[bhakti] yoga by means of which one obtains everything thinkable from
Me - are a hindrance and a waste of time.
the goal of those who seek progress, the Time of those who exert
control, I am the equilibrium of the modes of nature as also the virtue
of those endowed with good qualities.
what constitutes a stable vision I am the solar year, of the seasons I
am spring, among the months I am Mârgas'îrsha
[November-December] and of the lunar mansions [the twenty-seven
nakshatras] I am Abhijit. (28) Among the yugas I am Satya-yuga, among
the sober ones I am Devala and Asita, of the Vedic editors I am
Dvaipâyana [Vyâsadeva] and among the scholars learned in
spirituality I am S'ukrâcârya.
one's head and body, one's
facial hair and nails [to grow] as also the filth of one's body, not
[extensively] clean one's teeth, [but] bathe three times a day and [at
night] sleep on the ground.
One eats what is either prepared on a fire, what has
ripened by time or
what was pulverized with a mortar, with a stone or ground with one's
teeth. One should personally collect whatever that is needed for
one's sustenance depending the place, the time and one's energy and
understand that [living in the forest] one must not store anything for
another time [see also 7.12: 19].
Please uplift this person who so badly craving for
some insignificant happiness, bitten by the snake of time, hopelessly
fell down in this dark pit [of material existence]. Oh Greatest
Authority, pour out Your words of mercy that lead to liberation!'
They also discuss the differences within the
varnâs'rama system wherein the father may be of a higher
[anuloma] or a lower [pratiloma] class than the mother, they are about
heaven and hell and expound on the subjects of having possessions,
one's age, place and time [see also 4.8: 54 and *].
hat would be the right and wrong considerations
concerning the time, place, the things and so on, is established by Me
with the purpose of restricting materially motivated activities.
time that by its nature [solar position, lunar phase] or by its objects
[appointment by calendar and sundial] is suitable for performing one's
prescribed duties is considered good and the time that impedes
the performance of one's duties or is unsuitable [night time e.g. or
times of different obligations] is considered bad [see also B.G. 7: 8,
11.20: 26, kâla and kâlakûtha **]. The purity or
impurity of a thing [or of a substance] is determined [validated] with
the help of another thing, in respect of what one says about it, by
means of a ritual performance [of purification], in respect of time or
according to its relative magnitude [***].
or by each of them
separately [matters are purified like] grains, things made of wood,
clay and bone, thread, skins, liquids and things won from fire.
purification derived from a mantra is a consequence of the correct
knowledge about it. The purification by a certain act is the
consequence of one's dedication to Me. Dharma [religiosity] prospers by
[the purity of] the six factors [as mentioned: the place, the time, the
substance, the mantras, the doer and the devotional act], whereas
godlessness [adharma] is produced by the contrary.
In this world the mode of goodness is of knowledge
[light], the mode of passion is of fruitive labor [karma] and the mode
of ignorance is of a lack of wisdom. The interaction of the modes is
called Time and that what is there by nature, the natural propensity
[svabhâva], constitutes the thread [the mahat-tattva is the
sûtra, see also 11.12: 19-21].
The agitation of the modes takes place on the basis of the primal ether
and leads to changes [or pradhâna constitutes the cause of the
time phenomena]. The principle of the intellect [the mahat-tattva, see
also ***] therefore gives rise to a false I-awareness that is the cause
of three different types of bewilderment: emotion [vaikârika],
ignorance [tâmasa] and sensual pleasure [aindriya].
one, created bodies constantly find and lose their existence as a
consequence of Time, the imperceptible, subtle energy of which one does
Uddhava, a part of the wealth of this so-called brahmin was seized by
his relatives, some by thieves, some by providence, some by time, some
by common people and some by higher authorities [see also 10.49: 22].
brahmin said: 'These people are not the cause of my happiness or
distress, nor can I blame the demigods, my body, the planets, my karma
or the time. It is, according to the standard authorities [the s'ruti]
nothing but the mind that causes someone to rotate in the cycle of
we say that time would be the cause of our happiness and distress,
where do we find the soul in that notion? The soul is not equal to the
time, the way fire is not equal to its heat and snow is not equal to
[cold]. With whom must one be angry when there is no duality in the
transcendental position [see also B.G. 18: 16 and time quotes]?
agitation of material nature [in the form of time, of Kâla], the
modes of tamas, rajas and sattva [the gunas] have manifested in order
to fulfill the desires of the living entity.
arranged by Me,
the Supporter, the Self of Time, one rises up from or drowns in the
mighty stream of the modes of this world in which one is bound to
Material nature [prakriti] the
foundation of which is constituted by the causal [transformed]
ingredient of the Supreme Person [the purusha], together with that what
is the agitating agent, viz. Time [kâla], makes up the threefold
of the Absolute Truth [Brahman] that I am.
the form of the universe that is pervaded by Me has manifested the
planetary variety of its time periods [of creation, maintenance and
decay], this variety with its different worlds [losing its synergy]
arrives at [a dissolution into] its five composing gross elements [see
yugas, manvantaras, and B.G. 11: 13]. (22-27) The mortal frame [at the
time of annihilation] will merge with the food, the food with the
grains, the grains with the earth and the earth with the fragrance.
Fragrance becomes merged with the water, the water with its quality of
taste, the taste with the fire and the fire with the form. Form merges
with air, air merges with touch and touch merges thereupon with the
ether. Ether merges with the subtle object of sound and the senses [of
sound etc.] become merged with their sources [the gods of the sun and
moon etc.]. The sources My dear Uddhava, merge with the mind of the ego
of goodness, the controller of the sound, that dissolves in the
original state of the elements [the ego of slowness]. This all-powerful
primal elementary nature then merges with the cosmic intelligence
[mahat]. That greater principle dissolves in its own modes and they on
their turn merge with their ultimate abode, the unmanifest state of
nature that merges with the infallible Time. Time merges with the
individuality [the jîva] of the Supreme in command of the
illusory potency and that individuality merges with Me, the Supreme
Self Unborn [âtmâ], who, characterized by creation and
annihilation, is perfectly established in Himself and remains alone
[see also 3.11: 28, 4.23: 15-18, 11.3: 12-15]. (28) Just as with the
darkness when the sun rises in the sky, how can the bewilderment of the
dual mind remain in the heart of the one who seriously studies this?
(29) This is what I, the Supervisor of the Spiritual and Material
world, had to say concerning this Sânkhya instruction of analysis
[see also 3.25 - 3.33] that breaks through the bondage of doubts of the
people who both go along with and go against nature.'
the performer, faith, the state of consciousness and the species and
destinations of life thus all belong to the three gunas.
individual soul [of identification] with his attention directed at the
body, the senses, the life force and the mind, assumes, depending the
gunas and the karma, his form within the [great universal] Self. With
the lead [the sûtra] of the complete of nature thus very
differently denominated [as a dog, ape or human being], he then
controlled by time moves around in material existence.
Spiritual knowledge [jñâna,
discrimination [of spirit and matter and is nourished by] scripture and
penance, personal experience, historical accounts and logical
inference. [It is based upon] that what is there in the beginning, what
stays the same in between and what remains in the end of this
[creation], namely the Time and Ultimate Cause [of brahman, the
Absolute Truth, see also B.G. 10: 30, 33, 11: 32 and kâla].
Alleen dan wel gezamenlijk behoort men
de stand van de maan [o.a.], bij speciale gelegenheden en met
feestdagen zich bezig te houden met zang en dans en zo meer, met pracht
en praal [en gulle gaven].
S'rî S'uka said: 'And then oh King, under the
strong influence of the time [of Kali-yuga] religiousness,
truthfulness, cleanliness, tolerance and mercy as also duration of
life, physical strength and memory will diminish day after day [see
King, of whatever that kings may enjoy in the world with all their
power, is by Time nothing more preserved than some accounts and
histories [compare with 2.9: 33, 5.19: 28, 11.19: 16, 11.28: 21].'
Prithu, Purûravâ, Gâdhi, Nahusha,
Bharata, Kârtavîryârjuna, Mândhâtâ,
Sagara, Râma [*], Khathvânga, Dhundhuhâ [or]
Kuvalayâs'va [9.6: 23-24], Raghu [9.10: 1], Trinabindu [9.2: 30],
Yayâti, S'aryâti [9.3: 1], S'antanu [9.22: 12-13], Gaya
[5.15: 6-13], Bhagîratha [9.9: 2-17], Kakutstha [9.6: 12],
Naishadha [Nala, 9.9: 16-17, 9.23: 20-21, from the descendants of
Nishadha, 9.12: 1], Nriga [Nâbhâga, 10.64: 10],
Hiranyakas'ipu, Vritra, Râvana, who made the whole world lament,
Namuci [8.11: 29-49], S'ambara [10.36: 36], Bhauma, Hiranyâksha
and Târaka [8.10: 19-24], as also many other demons and kings of
great control over others, were all heroes who well informed were
unconquerable and subdued everyone. Living for me, oh mighty one, they
expressed great possessiveness but, by the force of Time being
subjected to death, they failed to accomplish their goals, historical
accounts is all that remained of them [see also B.G. 4: 7].
The honorable king [Parîkchit] said: 'By
what means my Lord, do the people living in Kali-yuga eradicate the
faults accumulating because of that age? Please explain to me how it
is. (17) How about the yugas, the duties prescribed for them, the time
they last and when they end, as also the Time itself that represents
the movement of the Controller, of Lord Vishnu the Supreme Soul [see
also time quotes page].'
The qualities of goodness, passion and ignorance
thus [depending the age] are observed in a person, undergo - being
impelled by [the operation of] Time - permutations within the mind
rî S'uka said: 'Time beginning with the
unit of the atom and culminating in the two halves [or parârdhas
of the life of Brahmâ] oh King, has been described [in 3.11]
together with the duration of the yugas. Now hear about the
annihilation of a kalpa.
Fire then takes away the taste of water, after
it, deprived of this quality, dissolves. Next follows fire that by air
is deprived of its form because it takes its quality [of touch] away,
after which the air enters the ether that takes away that quality. Then
oh King the ether dissolves in the original element of nature
[âdi, false ego in ignorance] that takes away its quality of
sound. Subsequently the senses are seized by the vital power of the
universe [tejas or false ego in passion] my best, while the gods are
absorbed by the universal modification [vikara, the false ego of
goodness]. Cosmic intelligence [mahat] seizes the false ego with all
its functions after which mahat is absorbed by the modes of nature of
sattva and so on. These three modes oh King, are then, under the
pressure of Time, overtaken by the inexhaustible doer [the original
unmanifest form of nature]. The original doer is not subject to
transformation in divisions of time [shath-ûrmi] and such
qualities; being unmanifest without a beginning and an end, it [or He]
is the infallible eternal cause.
Dit [deze staat] vormt de
pralaya] vernietiging waarin al de materiële elementen van de
natuur en de energieën van de ongeziene Oorspronkelijke Persoon
door de Tijd volledig worden ontmanteld en reddeloos samenvloeien.
Even though knowable to us the changeable nature
[the phenomenal world or] even a single atom, can in no way be
explained without [ - as standing apart from -] the Self inside [of the
Time, the Lord, the expansion of the universe, the 'fourth dimension'],
for if that would be so [if there would not be such a Self] it
should, being equal to the consciousness, stay the way it is.
The [more or less favorable living]
of all living beings subject to transformation, are rapidly and
continuously wiped out by the mighty force of the current of Time and
constitute the causes of their birth and death. These states of
existence created by the Time, the form of the Lord without a beginning
or an end, one does not see [directly], just as the [movements of the]
planets in the sky are not seen [directly, see also 3.10: 10-14].
strength was diminished, divided the chief
sages, inspired by the Infallible Lord situated in their hearts, the
Vedas [see also 1.4: 16-18].
the form of Time
is present [as the Controller] in the hearts of the four kinds of
living entities beginning from Brahmâ down to the blades of grass
[as born from wombs, eggs, moist and seed see, also 2.10 37-40]. You
who, the same way as the sky [by its clouds], are not covered by
material designations ['clouds'] do You alone by the flow of years made
up of the tiny fragments of kshanas, lavas and nimeshas [see 3.11: 7]
carry out the maintenance of this universe by taking away and giving
back the water [as rain].
benefit the person who has to fear from all sides o Lord; we know that
Brahmâ, whose time takes two parârdhas, on account of this
is most afraid, afraid because of the Time that You are - and what to
speak of the worldly entities created by him? [see 10.13: 56].
those two kinds
of people, o best one of Bhrigu, who thus either hear or describe this
[narration] infused with the potency of the Lord with the Wheel [of
Time] in His hand, will there not be the course of mundane existence
based on karma.
club He carries
is the principle element [prâna or vital air] relating to the
sensory power, physical power and the power of mind; His excellent
conchshell is the element water and His Sudars'ana disc is the
principle of tejas [the vital power, the dignity, the fire in
opposition]. His sword is, [pure] as the atmosphere, the ether element,
His shield consists of the mode of ignorance, His bow S'arnga is the
specific order [or spirit, the rûpa] of time, and His quiver of
arrows consists of the karma [the action or the karmendriyas].
cyclic [of time, viz. the sun and the moon] constitutes the exercise of
respect for the
Godhead, spiritual initiation [dîkshâ] is
regulator of all the planets [the sun] revolving in their midst [around
mount Meru, see 5.22: 2] was [by the Lord in the form of Time] created
from the beginningless material energy of Vishnu, the Supreme Soul of
all embodied being..
Lord in terms of the material energy is thus, divided in nine,
described as the time, the place, the endeavor, the performer, the
instrument, the specific ritual, the scripture, the paraphernalia and
the result, o brahmin [compare
for each of the twelve separately moves with a different set of [six]
associates [next to the Deva consisting of an Apsara, a Râkshasa,
a Nâga, a Yaksha, a sage and a Gandharva].
these [personalities] constitute the glories of Vishnu, the Supreme
Personality of Godhead assuming the form of the sun-god; they take away
the sinful reactions of those people who at the junctures of each day
subtle movements of time [3.11], [are discussed as well as] the
generation of the lotus [3.8] and the killing of Hiranyâksha in
connection with the deliverance of the earth from the ocean [3.17-19].
last there is
an account of] Vishnurata [Parîkchit], the intelligent saintly
king, relinquishing his body [12.5-6], how the seer [Vyâsa and
others] conveyed the branches of the Veda [12.6-7], the pious narration
about Mârkandeya [12.8-10] and the arrangement of the [limbs of
the] Mahâpurusha and the arrangement [of time] in relation to the
sun. the self of the living being of the universe [12.11].
self-control fasting and reciting this collection of verses at [the
holy places of] Pushkara, Mathurâ or Dvârakâ, one
will be freed from the fear [of Time, or of a material life, see also 1.13: 19]
way but in the course of time in this world this
great way of connecting oneself was scattered, o subduer of the
of Bharata, at
that time I do manifest Myself.
purification and he who is mature in his own yoga will enjoy that
in due course of time within himself.
fruitive labor, at that time he is a renouncer of selfhood elevated in
yoga, one says.
the sacrifices also;
they with their minds connected in Me even know me at the time of their
will attain Me without
either does not return or does return
again. Of knowing any of these different path's, o son of Prithâ,
the yogi is never bewildered; therefore always get unified in yoga, o
O son of Kuntî, producing all moving and nonmoving
beings. Under its rule this manifestation is created and annihilated
again and again.
the Daityas [non-theist sons of Diti who churned the ocean] I am
Prahlâda, of what rules I am the Time, of the animals the lion
and of the birds I am Garuda [Vainateya].
the letters I am the first one [the A], of the compound words I am the
dual one and certainly am I the eternal of Time and the Creator facing
all directions [Brahmâ].
here and now the universe completely, all at the same time, with all
that moves and not moves, in this body of Mine, o conqueror of sleep,
and also whatever else you wish to see.
people, except for you [brothers] only, will all the soldiers who are
situated on both sides, find their end.
is resting in oneness and that it expanded to that reality, at that
time one attains the Absolute of the Spirit.
that time one says is the mode of goodness prevailing.
considered to be of goodness.
unworthy persons and as well is given without respect and proper
attention - that is said to be in the mode of ignorance.
Supreme Master resides in the heart of all living entities, o Arjuna,
directing each creature subject to the mechanical of time and matter.