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Canto 12

Govindam Ādi Purusham

 



Chapter 7: The Devotion in Samhitā Branches and the Ten Topics of the Purānas

(1) S'rī Sūta said: "Sumantu Rishi, the knower of the Atharva Veda [see 12.6: 52-53], instructed his mantra collection to his disciple [named Kabandha], who [dividing it in two] spoke it to Pathya and Vedadars'a. (2) Please listen: S'auklāyani, Brahmabali, Modosha and Pippalāyani, the disciples of Vedadars'a and the disciples Kumuda, S'unaka and Jājali of Pathya my dear brahmin, were also all of them authorities on the Atharva Veda. (3) Then Babhru and Saindhavāyana, two disciples of S'unaka [Angirā], the same way learned two Samhitās and other disciples headed by Sāvarna learned them [from them again] in their turn. (4) Also Nakshatrakalpa, S'āntikalpa, Kas'yapa, Āngirasa and others belong to these ācāryas of the Atharva Veda. Hear now, oh sage, about the authorities of the Purānas.

(5) Trayyāruni, Kas'yapa, Sāvarni, Akritavrana, Vais'ampāyana and Hārīta are the six masters of the Purānas. (6) Each of them learned one collection from the mouth of Vyāsa's pupil, my father [Romaharshana], and I, as a disciple of [all] these [masters], became well versed in all [the collections]. (7) Kas'yapa, I, Sāvarni and Akritavrana, who is a disciple of Rāma [Pāras'urāma, see also 10.74: 7-9], learned four basic collections from [Romaharshana,] the disciple of Vyāsa. (8) Oh brahmin, please listen attentively to what the characteristics are of a Purāna as ascertained by the most intelligent brahmin seers in accordance with the Vedic scriptures. (9-10) The creation [of this universe, sarga], the subsequent creation [of different worlds and beings, visarga], the maintenance [the sustenance, the vritti or sthāna] and protection [the rakshā or poshana of the living beings], the reigns [of the various Manus], the dynasties [vams'as], the narrations about them [vams'a-anucaritam], the annihilation [of different kinds, pralaya or samsthā], the reason [the individual living entity or hetu] and the supreme shelter [of the Fortunate One or apās'raya], oh brahmin, are the ten topics characterizing a Purāna as understood by the authorities on the matter. Some state that relative to the greater ones, the smaller Purānas deal with only five of these subjects [see also S'uka on this 2.10: 1-7 and *].



(11) Creation [sarga] is what one calls the generation from the primordial state. From that state the agitation of the modes raised the cosmic intelligence from which the identification with matter rose that is divided in three aspects [or types of beings to the modes]. This further led to the manifestation of the subtle forms of perception, the senses and the objects of sense perception [formation by the conditioning of and identification with Time, compare 2.10: 3].

(12) The secondary creation [visarga] consists of the collection of ideas [impressions, desires, expectations, the vāsanās] of the moving and nonmoving living beings. These propensities are, by the grace of the Original Person [the purusha], produced the same way as seed that produces [even more] seed.

(13) Living beings subsist on other living beings that move around or else do not move around. For human beings specifically this [vritti] means that one therein acts according to either one's personal nature, one's lust or to scriptural regulations.

(14) Rakshā [or protection] concerns the [activities of the] incarnations of the Infallible One who age after age are present here among the animals, the mortals, the seers and the demigods of this universe, and kill the enemies of the threefold Veda [see also B.G. 4: 7].

(15) With every reign of a Manu one speaks of the sixfold [manifestation of the] Lord: the Manu, the demigods, the sons of the Manu, the different controllers of the enlightened souls [the Indras], the seers [or rishis] and the partial incarnations [of the Lord, the ams'a-avatāras].

(16) Dynasties [vams'as] originating from Brahmā extend as series of kings through the past, present and future [trikālika] and their histories [vams'a-anucaritam] describe the activities of the prominent members in succession.

(17) The periodical, natural, continuous and complete annihilation taking place as a consequence of His potency constitutes the four aspects of what the scholars describe as the dissolution of this universe [as samsthā or pralaya, see also 12.4].

(18) The reason [hetu] of the [existence of the] creation [sarga] and everything thereto [the maintenance and destruction] of this [universe] is [constituted by] the individual living soul [the spiritual and personal jīva], who out of ignorance is of result-minded action [accumulates karma], someone of whom others speak as the unmanifest [impersonal and conditioned] self.

(19) The Absolute Truth ['God', brahma, devadeva] as the supreme shelter [apās'raya] is present both separate from and connected with [or inside] the waking, sleeping and dreamless state, the material forms presented by the illusory energy and the individual [moral] conduct. (20) Just as the basic substance of material objects exists both separately from as in connection with existing matters with a name and form, it [the Absolute Truth] throughout the various phases of a bodily existence, is connected with and separate from the seed in the beginning up to the five elements [one returns to] in the end [compare 8.6: 10]. (21) When the mind stops out of it own by giving up the three functions of consciousness [vritti-traya] or by practicing [bhakti] yoga, one knows the Supreme Soul and ceases from material endeavoring [zie ook 3.25: 32-33].

(22) The sages expert in the ancient stories, say that, thus being distinguished by their characteristics, there are eighteen big and [eighteen] small Purānas [from 9.000 up tot 81.000 verses, see also Upa-purāna]. (23-24) They [the big ones] are known as the three times six Purānas [according to each guna-avatāra] named Brahmā, Padma, Vishnu, S'iva, Linga, Garuda, Nārada, Bhāgavata, Agni, Skanda, Bhavishya, Brahma-vaivarta, Mārkandeya, Vāmana, Varāha, Matsya, Kūrma and Brahmānda [see Purānas]. (25) Oh brahmin, I thus described thoroughly the branches [of Vedic knowledge] conducive to one's spiritual potency the way they were divided by the sage [Vyāsa], his disciples and the disciples of his disciples."

 

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Third revised edition, loaded November 9, 2015.

 

 

 

Previous Aadhar edition and Vedabase links:

Text 1

S'rī Sūta said: "Sumantu Rishi, the knower of the Atharva Veda [see 12.6: 52-53], instructed his mantra collection to his disciple [named Kabandha], who [dividing it in two] spoke it to Pathya and Vedadars'a.
S'rī Sūta said: "Sumantu Rishi, the expert on the Atharva Veda as you know [see 6: 52-53], instructed his collection to his disciple [named Kabandha], who [dividing it in two] was pleased to speak it to Pathya and Vedadars'a.  (Vedabase)

 

Text 2

Please listen: S'auklāyani, Brahmabali, Modosha and Pippalāyani, the disciples of Vedadars'a and the disciples Kumuda, S'unaka and Jājali of Pathya my dear brahmin, were also all of them authorities on the Atharva Veda.

Please listen: S'auklāyani, Brahmabali, Modosha and Pippalāyani, the disciples of Vedadars'a and the disciples of Pathya, my dear brahmin, Kumuda, S'unaka and Jājali, were all authorities on the Atharva Veda as well. (Vedabase)

  

Text 3

Then Babhru and Saindhavāyana, two disciples of S'unaka [Angirā], the same way learned two Samhitās and other disciples headed by Sāvarna learned them [from them again] in their turn.

Babhru and Saindhavāyana, disciples of S'unaka, then the same manner learned two samhitās and so did other disciples headed by Sāvarna [learn from them]. (Vedabase)

  

 Text 4

Also Nakshatrakalpa, S'āntikalpa, Kas'yapa, Āngirasa and others belong to these ācāryas of the Atharva Veda. Hear now, oh sage, about the authorities of the Purānas.

Nakshatrakalpa, S'āntikalpa, Kas'yapa and Āngirasa belong to these ācāryas of the Atharva Veda. Now hear, o sage, about the authorities of the Purānas. (Vedabase)

 

Text 5

Trayyāruni, Kas'yapa, Sāvarni, Akritavrana, Vais'ampāyana and Hārīta are the six masters of the Purānas.

Trayyāruni, Kas'yapa, Sāvarni, Akritavrana, Vais'ampāyana and Hārīta are the six masters of the purānas. (Vedabase)

 

Text 6

Each of them learned one collection from the mouth of Vyāsa's pupil, my father [Romaharshana], and I, as a disciple of [all] these [masters], became well versed in all [the collections].

They learned the collection from the mouth of Vyāsa's pupil, my father [Romaharshana], and I, as a disciple from each of them learning one portion, became well versed in them all. (Vedabase)

 

Text 7

Kas'yapa, I, Sāvarni and Akritavrana, who is a disciple of Rāma [Pāras'urāma, see also 10.74: 7-9], learned four basic collections from [Romaharshana,] the disciple of Vyāsa.

Kas'yapa, I, Sāvarni and Akritavrana, who is a disciple of Rāma [of the Bhārgavas or Pāras'urāma, see also 10.74: 7-9], have assimilated four basic collections from the disciple of Vyāsa. (Vedabase)

 

 Text 8

Oh brahmin, please listen attentively to what the characteristics are of a Purāna as ascertained by the most intelligent brahmin seers in accordance with the Vedic scriptures.

O brahmin, please listen attentively to what the characteristics of a Purāna are, which in accordance with the vedic scriptures by the most intelligent brahmin seers have been ascertained. (Vedabase)

  

 Text 9-10

The creation [of this universe, sarga], the subsequent creation [of different worlds and beings, visarga], the maintenance [the sustenance, the vritti or sthāna] and protection [the rakshā or poshana of the living beings], the reigns [of the various Manus], the dynasties [vams'as], the narrations about them [vams'a-anucaritam], the annihilation [of different kinds, pralaya or samsthā], the reason [the individual living entity or hetu] and the supreme shelter [of the Fortunate One or apās'raya], oh brahmin, are the ten topics characterizing a Purāna as understood by the authorities on the matter. Some state that relative to the greater ones, the smaller Purānas deal with only five of these subjects [see also S'uka on this 2.10: 1-7 and *].

The creation [of this universe, sarga], the subsequent creation [of different worlds and beings, visarga], the maintenance [the sustenance, the vritti or sthāna] and protection [the rakshā or poshana of the living beings], the reigns [of the various Manus], the dynasties [vams'as], the narrations about them [vams'a-anucaritam], the annihilation [of different kinds, pralaya or samsthā], the motivation [of individuality or hetu] and the supreme shelter [of the Fortunate One or apās'raya], o brahmin, are the ten topics characterizing a Purāna as understood by the authorities on the matter; some state that relative to the greater ones, the lesser Purānas deal only with five of these subjects [see also S'uka on this 2.10: 1-7 and *]. (Vedabase)

 

Text 11

Creation [sarga] is what one calls the generation from the primordial state. From that state the agitation of the modes raised the cosmic intelligence from which the identification with matter rose that is divided in three aspects [or types of beings to the modes]. This further led to the manifestation of the subtle forms of perception, the senses and the objects of sense perception [formation by the conditioning of and identification with Time, compare 2.10: 3].

Creation [sarga] is what is called the generation from the primordial state. From that state the agitation of the modes raised the cosmic intelligence from which the identification with matter rose the way it is divided in three aspects [or types of beings to the modes]. This further led to the manifestation of the subtle forms of perception, the senses and the objects of perception [formation by the conditioning of and identification with Time, compare 2.10: 3]. (Vedabase)

 

Text 12

The secondary creation [visarga] consists of the collection of ideas [impressions, desires, expectations, the vāsanās] of the moving and nonmoving living beings. These propensities are, by the grace of the Original Person [the purusha], produced the same way as seed that produces [even more] seed.

The secondary creation [visarga] is the assemblage consisting of the inherent properties [the vāsanās] of the moving and nonmoving living beings. These propensities are, to the grace of the Original Person [purusha], produced the same way seed produces more seeds. (Vedabase)

 

Text 13

Living beings subsist on other living beings that move around or else do not move around. For human beings specifically this [vritti] means that one therein acts according to either one's personal nature, one's lust or to scriptural regulations.

Living beings subsist on [vritti] other living beings that move around or else do not move around. For specifically human beings this means that one for one's livelihood acts according to one's personal nature in which one either lives one's lust or acts in agreement with the [religious] rules. (Vedabase)


Text 14

Rakshā [or protection] concerns the [activities of the] incarnations of the Infallible One who age after age are present here among the animals, the mortals, the seers and the demigods of this universe, and kill the enemies of the threefold Veda [see also B.G. 4: 7].

Rakshā [or protection] is there with the Incarnations of the Infallible One. Age after age being present among the animals, the mortals, the seers and the demigods, are by these incarnations the enemies of the threefold Veda killed [see also B.G. 4: 7]. (Vedabase)

 

Text 15

With every reign of a Manu one speaks of the sixfold [manifestation of the] Lord: the Manu, the demigods, the sons of the Manu, the different controllers of the enlightened souls [the Indras], the seers [or rishis] and the partial incarnations [of the Lord, the ams'a-avatāras].

With every reign of a Manu there is the sixfold of the Lord: the Manu, the demigods, the sons of the Manu, the different controllers of the enlightened [the Indras], the seers [or rishis], and the partial incarnations [the Lord His ams'a-avatāras]. (Vedabase)

 

Text 16

Dynasties [vams'as] originating from Brahmā extend as series of kings through the past, present and future [trikālika] and their histories [vams'a-anucaritam] describe the activities of the prominent members in succession.

Dynasties [vams'as] originating from Brahmā extend into the threefold of time [trikālika] as series of kings and their histories [vams'a-anucaritam] describe the activities of the prominent members in succession. (Vedabase)

 

Text 17

The periodical, natural, continuous and complete annihilation taking place as a consequence of His potency constitutes the four aspects of what the scholars describe as the dissolution of this universe [as samsthā or pralaya, see also 12.4].

The occasional, elemental, continuous and ultimate annihilation that is effected by His potency constitutes the four aspects of what the scholars describe as the dissolution of this universe [as samsthā or pralaya, see also 12.4].  (Vedabase)

 

Text 18

The reason [hetu] of the [existence of the] creation [sarga] and everything thereto [the maintenance and destruction] of this [universe] is [constituted by] the individual living soul [the spiritual and personal jīva], who out of ignorance is of result-minded action [accumulates karma], someone of whom others speak as the unmanifest [impersonal and conditioned] self.

The motive [hetu] of the creation [sarga] and everything that belongs to it, is the individual living soul [jīva], who out of ignorance is the performer of fruitive activities [karma]. Others on the contrary speak of the unmanifest underlying personality. (Vedabase)


Text 19

The Absolute Truth ['God', brahma, devadeva] as the supreme shelter [apās'raya] is present both separate from and connected with [or inside] the waking, sleeping and dreamless state, the material forms presented by the illusory energy and the individual [moral] conduct.

God as the supreme shelter [apās'raya] is, separately for Himself as well as conjoint, present within the waking, sleeping and dreamless state, within the things presented by the illusory energy and within the functions of individuality. (Vedabase)

 

Text 20

Just as the basic substance of material objects exists both separately from as in connection with existing matters with a name and form, it [the Absolute Truth] throughout the various phases of a bodily existence, is connected with and separate from the seed in the beginning up to the five elements [one returns to] in the end [compare 8.6: 10].

The basic substance of material objects is connected to, as well as independent from, their separate existence as things that have a name and form. The same way it is [with God who] throughout the various phases of a bodily existence, [is connected to as well as independently present] from the seed in the beginning up to the five elements [one returns to] in the end [compare 8.6: 10]. (Vedabase)

 

Text 21

When the mind stops out of it own by giving up the three functions of consiousness [vritti-traya] or by practicing [bhakti] yoga, one knows the Supreme Soul and ceases from material endeavoring [zie ook 3.25: 32-33].

Of its own or through yoga, thought may stop in transcendence of the threefold state [vritti-traya]. When one ceases from material endeavoring one knows the Supreme Soul [see also 3.25: 32-33]. (Vedabase)

 

Text 22

The sages expert in the ancient stories, say that, thus being distinguished by their characteristics, there are eighteen big and [eighteen] small Purānas [from 9.000 up tot 81.000 verses, see also Upa-purāna].

This way distinguished by their characteristics there are, so say the sages expert in the ancient stories, eighteen big and [eighteen] small purānas [from 9.000 up tot 81.000 verses, see also Upa-purāna]. (Vedabase)

 

Text 23-24

They [the big ones] are known as the three times six Purānas [according to each guna-avatāra] named Brahmā, Padma, Vishnu, S'iva, Linga, Garuda, Nārada, Bhāgavata, Agni, Skanda, Bhavishya, Brahma-vaivarta, Mārkandeya, Vāmana, Varāha, Matsya, Kūrma and Brahmānda [see Purānas].

They are known as the three times six purānas [to each guna-avatāra] called Brahmā, Padma, Vishnu, S'iva, Linga, Garuda, Nārada, Bhāgavata, Agni, Skanda, Bhavishya, Brahma-vaivarta, Mārkandeya, Vāmana, Varāha, Matsya, Kūrma and Brahmānda [see Purānas]. (Vedabase)

 

Text 25

Oh brahmin, I thus described thoroughly the branches [of Vedic knowledge] conducive to one's spiritual potency the way they were divided by the sage [Vyāsa], his disciples and the disciples of his disciples."

O brahmin, I thus described thoroughly the knowledge conducive to one's spiritual potency the way it is divided by the sage [Vyāsa], his disciples and the disciples of his disciples." (Vedabase)

  

*: The Vedic verse (Amarkhasa) to this secondary status of a Purāna says: sargas' ca pratisargas' ca vams'o manvantarāni ca vams'ānucaritam ceti purānam pańca-lakshanam; "Creation, secondary creation, the dynasties of kings, the reigns of Manus and the activities of various dynasties are the five characteristics of a Purāna."

S'rīla Jīva Gosvāmī has explained to this that the ten principal topics of S'rīmad-Bhāgavatam are found within each of the twelve cantos. One should not try to assign each of the ten topics to a particular canto. Nor should the S'rīmad-Bhāgavatam be artificially interpreted to show that it deals with the topics successively. The simple fact is that all aspects of knowledge important to human beings, summarized in the ten categories mentioned above, are described with various degrees of emphasis and analysis throughout the S'rīmad-Bhāgavatam [pp. 12.7: 9-10].

 

 

 

 

 

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