rule



 
Canto 7

Manah S'ikshâ

 


Chapter 12: The Four Âs'ramas and How to Leave the Body

(1) S'rî Nârada said: 'A celibate student [brahmacârî] living at the residence of the guru, should for the sake of his teacher behave like a submissive servant and stand firm in his friendship with his master. (2) Both in the evening and in the morning he should worship the guru, the fire, the sun and the Best One of Enlightenment [Lord Vishnu], being absorbed in silently murmuring his prayer [the Gâyatrî] during those junctions of the day(3) When called by the spiritual master, he should orderly, to begin with and at the end, offer his obeisances with his head at the lotus feet and study the mantras. (4) With a straw rope around his waist, garments of deerskin and matted hair, he should gather kus'a grass [for sitting] and carry a rod, a water pot and a sacred thread as is prescribed. (5) In the morning and the evening he should go out to collect alms and offer all that he collected to the guru. He should eat when it is permitted or otherwise fast at times. (6) He should behave politely, eat according to necessity, be industrious, be faithful [and believe in the words of the guru], have his senses under control and only relate to the other sex and to men controlled by women as far as is needed [compare 3.3: 5]. (7) Anyone who is not a householder [a grihastha] and does respect the great vow [of celibacy, yama; see Pat. II: 30], must refrain from addressing women because of the agitating senses that even carry away the mind of a renunciate. (8) Brushing the hair, massaging, bathing, rubbing the body with oil and such is something that a young student should never accept from the wife of the guru when she is young [see also 1.11: 29]. (9) The other sex is like fire to the pot of butter that a man is; when he lives alone he should only associate with women - even with his own daughter - as far as it does good [is properly settled, is useful]. (10) As long as one can not remain with oneself nor is convinced that one can do something about this [in niyama, with a good settlement], this [being dominated by illusions of love and hate] will not cease so that one will not lead a better life [see also B.G. 5: 18]. (11) The above [in verse 6] described directions of the guru for the householder apply equally to the renunciate soul, be it that the householder can have sexual intercourse for a certain period of time [see also B.G. 7: 11]. (12) Those who have taken the vow of celibacy must give it up to make up their eyes, massage the head and the body, crave after the female image, to eat meat, indulge in intoxicating beverages, wear flower garlands, make use of scents or scented ointments and to decorate themselves with jewelry.  (13-14) This way residing under the care of a guru, they who started a new life [as a dvija] attain by their studies, as far as their talent would allow, a proper understanding of the Vedas, their s'astric supplements and adherent upanishad philosophies. They reward the guru according to his wishes and then with his permission leave him to enter either a household life [as a grihastha] or enter the forest [as a vânaprastha or to occupy a withdrawn position in society] or else renounce all and/or stay there [to become a sannyâsî like him]. (15) Adhokshaja resides in the fire, in the guru, in oneself and in every other living entity. He, the One beyond it All, one should consider as both having entered the living beings with everything that belongs to Him as also [existing there beforehand] as not having entered them [pravistah/apravistah compare  B.G. 9: 4]. (16) When one lives this way [in devotion] as a celibate student, a withdrawn person, as someone renouncing the world or as a householder, one becomes conversant with the wisdom [of sanâtana dharma] and attains the transcendental reality of the Absolute Truth.

 
(17) Let me now explain to you the rules and regulations for leading a retired life [for being a vânaprastha] as approved by the seers, in respect of which a saintly person without difficulty will be promoted to the world of the sages [Maharloka] oh King. (18) He should not eat grains from cultivated fields nor that what is not ripe from non-cultivated fields. He must also not eat grains or ripe and raw produce that was cooked. It is prescribed that the vânaprastha should eat what has ripened naturally by the sun. (19) From the naturally grown grains and fruits the forest provides he should prepare cakes that can be offered and obtaining new produce the old stock should be given up. (20) He should only take shelter of a thatched cottage or a cave for keeping a [sacrificial] fire. Just for himself he has to endure the snow, the wind, the fire, the rain and the sunshine. (21) He should also be unconcerned about the hair on his head, the hair on his body, his nails, his facial hair, his dirt and the locks of his matted hair. He should keep a water pot and a deerskin, a rod and tree bark [to cover himself] and utensils for the fire. (22) He should remain in the forest for twelve years, eight years, four years or else for two years or one year only as a saintly, thoughtful man who does not lose his mind because of [having to endure too much] hardship. (23) When he because of disease or old age cannot perform his duties any longer for advancing in knowledge and spiritual life, he must refrain from taking food. (24) Placing the fire element within himself he should give up the false self of being identified with the body and as good as possible fully merge with the complete of the elements he is composed of. (25) [To lead his functions back] to their causes he merges the apertures of his body with the sky, his different vital airs with the air, his body heat with the fire, his blood, mucus and urine with water and the remainder [of his hard tissues] he merges with the earth [compare with 1.15: 41-42 and 3.6: 12]. (26-28) Speech and its organ belong to the god of fire, the hands and their dexterity belong to Indra, the legs and their power to move belong to Vishnu and the genitals with their sexual desire belong to the Prajâpati. The rectum and its bowel activity is of Mrityu [Death] and the aural sense associated with the sounds should be assigned to the [deities of the] directions. Touch and its organ belong to the wind god [Vâyu]. Eyesight along with its forms oh King, one should assign to the sun and the tongue and its rule belong to water while smell and its odors should be consigned to the earth. (29-30) The mind and its desires belong to Candra, the intelligence and its subject matter belong to the Supreme One of Education [Brahmâ], the false ego of the 'I' and 'mine' actions and its karma belong to Rudra [S'iva], the consciousness and its concept of existence belong to the Knower of the Field [the soul, see B.G. 13: 1-4] and the modes and their modifications belong to the Beyond. The [identification with the element of] earth [must be led back] to the water, the water to the lights of the luminaries, the brightness to the air, the air to the sky, the sky to the material conception of life, the false ego to that what constitutes the material energy: the complete of the cosmic reality [the mahat-tattva], and that reality dissolves into the primary state of nature [the unmanifested energy of pradhâna, see 3.26: 10] which also has its source: the imperishable [Supersoul]. (31) Thus understanding that the imperishable soul, that consists of nothing but the consciousness that remains [after this merging], is of the same quality as the Supersoul, one['s individual, isolated existence] ceases like firewood that has been consumed by fire.'

 

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  Third revised edition, loaded April 15, 2012.
 

 

 

Previous Aadhar edition and Vedabase links:

Text 1

S'rî Nârada said: 'A celibate student [brahmacârî] living at the residence of the guru, should for the sake of his teacher behave like a submissive servant and stand firm in his friendship with his master. 
S'rî Nârada said: 'A student [brahmacârî] living at the residence of the guru, should for the sake of his guru practice restraint, humility and obedience and be firm in friendship towards his spiritual teacher. (Vedabase)

 

Text 2

Both in the evening and in the morning he should worship the guru, the fire, the sun and the Best One of Enlightenment [Lord Vishnu], being absorbed in silently murmuring his prayer [the Gâyatrî] during those junctions of the day.

In both the evening and in the morning should he worship the guru, the fire, the sun and the Best One of Enlightenment [Lord Vishnu], silently murmuring absorbed in prayer [the Gâyatrî]. (Vedabase)

 

Text 3

When called by the spiritual master, he should orderly, to begin with and at the end, offer his obeisances with his head at the lotus feet and study the mantras.

When called by the spiritual master, he should orderly practice the mantra's and in the beginning and the end well-behaved offer his obeisances with his head at the lotus feet. (Vedabase)

 

Text 4

With a straw rope around his waist, garments of deerskin and matted hair, he should gather kus'a grass [for sitting] and carry a rod, a water pot and a sacred thread as is prescribed.

Equipped with a straw rope around his waist, garments of deerskin, matted hair, a rod, a waterpot and a sacred thread, should he take up the kus'a-gras [for sitting] as is prescribed. (Vedabase)

  

Text 5

In the morning and the evening he should go out to collect alms and offer all that he collected to the guru. He should eat when it is permitted or otherwise fast at times.

In the morning and the evening he should go out to collect alms and offer all that he collects to the guru. He should eat when ordered or otherwise fast at times. (Vedabase)

 

Text 6

He should behave politely, eat according to necessity, be industrious, be faithful [and believe in the words of the guru], have his senses under control and only relate to the other sex and to men controlled by women as far as is needed [compare 3.3: 5].

Very polite, only eating to necessity should he, industrious and full of faith, to necessity relating with the outward life of women and the men they control, be of control over his senses [compare 3.3: 5]. (Vedabase)

 

Text 7

Anyone who is not a householder [a grihastha] and does respect the great vow [of celibacy, yama; see Pat. II: 30], must refrain from addressing women because of the agitating senses that even carry away the mind of a renunciate. 

He, not belonging to the householders life, must, to the as good as invincible senses that even take away the mind of a renunciate, give it up to address women with the observance of the great vow of celibacy [the yama of astânga-yoga]. (Vedabase)
 

 

Text 8

Brushing the hair, massaging, bathing, rubbing the body with oil and such is something that a young student should never accept from the wife of the guru when she is young [see also 1.11: 29].

To brush the hair, massage the body, to bathe and rub it in with oil is something that the still young wife of the guru should never be allowed to do as a service if the adept is still young [see also 1.11:29]. (Vedabase)

 

Text 9

The other sex is like fire to the pot of butter that a man is; when he lives alone he should only associate with women - even with his own daughter - as far as it does good [is properly settled, is useful].

Especially the bewildered worship [of her] is like fire to the pot of butter that a man is; with other women, even with his own daughter, should he, living in seclusion, not associate more than is needed. (Vedabase)

 

Text 10

As long as one can not remain with oneself nor is convinced that one can do something about this [in niyama, with a good settlement], this [being dominated by illusions of love and hate] will not cease so that one will not lead a better life [see also B.G. 5: 18].

As long as reflection is ascertaining this positively in self-realization is there for that time freedom from illusion with the duality, but not detaching by that duality is there indeed of the person the inverse [see also B.G.5: 18]. (Vedabase)

 

Text 11

The above [in verse 6] described directions of the guru for the householder apply equally to the renunciate soul, be it that the householder can have sexual intercourse for a certain period of time [see also B.G. 7: 11].

All this following to the directions of the guru applies to a householder as good as to a renunciate, be it that the householder can have sex for a certain period of time [also: B.G. 7.11]. (Vedabase)


Text 12

Those who have taken the vow of celibacy must give it up to make up their eyes, massage the head and the body, crave after the female image, to eat meat, indulge in intoxicating beverages, wear flower garlands, make use of scents or scented ointments and to decorate themselves with jewelry.

Those who have taken the vow of celibacy must give up to make up their eyes, massage the head and the body, crave after the female image, meat-eating, intoxication, the use of scents or scented ointments and decorating themselves with jewelry and flowers. (Vedabase)

 

Text 13-14

This way residing under the care of a guru, they who started a new life [as a dvija] attain by their studies, as far as their talent would allow, a proper understanding of the Vedas, their s'astric supplements and adherent upanishad philosophies. They reward the guru according to his wishes and then with his permission leave him to enter either a household life [as a grihastha] or enter the forest [as a vânaprastha or to occupy a withdrawn position in society] or else renounce all and/or stay there [to become a sannyâsî like him].

This way residing under the care of a guru do the twice-born studying, to their talent, as far as possible, come to the proper understanding of the Veda's and their sastric supplements and adherent upanishad philosophies. Knowing what the guru wants do they, as far as they can, provide according to his wishes and enter they either a household life [grihastha] or the forest [vânaprastha or a withdrawn position in the community] once leaving his company, or do they stay with him [be like him, as a sannyâsî]. (Vedabase)


Text 15

Adhokshaja resides in the fire, in the guru, in oneself and in every other living entity. He, the One beyond it All, one should consider as both having entered the living beings with everything that belongs to Him as also [existing there beforehand] as not having entered them [pravistah/apravistah compare B.G. 9: 4].

In the fire, in the guru, in oneself and in every living entity resides Adhoksja, the One beyond it All, and one should consider Him as having as well entered as not having entered the living beings and everything that belongs to Him [pravistah/apravistah compare B.G. 9:4]. (Vedabase)
  
Text 16

When one lives this way [in devotion] as a celibate student, a withdrawn person, as someone renouncing the world or as a householder, one becomes conversant with the wisdom [of sanâtana dharma] and attains the transcendental reality of the Absolute Truth.

This way whether being a student, withdrawn, renunciate or a householder, can one of selfrealisation fully conversant with the wisdom understand the Supreme of the Spiritual, the Absolute Truth. (Vedabase)


Text 17

Let me now explain to you the rules and regulations for leading a retired life [for being a vânaprastha] as approved by the seers, in respect of which a saintly person without difficulty will be promoted to the world of the sages [Maharloka] oh King.

Let me now explain you the rules and regulations of the retired life [vânaprastha] as recognized by the saintly of which a holy man situated in it without difficulty is promoted to the world of the sages [Maharloka]. (Vedabase)

 

Text 18

He should not eat grains from cultivated fields nor that what is not ripe from non-cultivated fields. He must also not eat grains or ripe and raw produce that was cooked. It is prescribed that the vânaprastha should eat what has ripened naturally by the sun.

He should not eat grains from cultivated fields nor the unripe from non-cultivated fields and either grains or riped produce that was prepared; it is so enjoined that the vânaprastha should eat what has ripened naturally by the sun. (Vedabase)

 

Text 19

From the naturally grown grains and fruits the forest provides he should prepare cakes that can be offered and obtaining new produce the old stock should be given up.

From the naturally grown grains and fruits the forest provides he should prepare cakes and obtaining new produce should the old stock be given up. (Vedabase)

 

Text 20

He should only take shelter of a thatched cottage or a cave for keeping a [sacrificial] fire. Just for himself he has to endure the snow, the wind, the fire, the rain and the sunshine.

Personally enduring the snow, wind, fire, rain and the sunshine, should he take shelter of a thatched cottage or a cave only for keeping his fire. (Vedabase)

 

Text 21

He should also be unconcerned about the hair on his head, the hair on his body, his nails, his facial hair, his dirt and the locks of his matted hair. He should keep a water pot and a deerskin, a rod and tree bark [to cover himself] and utensils for the fire.

Also unconcerned about the hair on his head, the hair on his body, his nails, his facial hair, his dirt and the matted of his locks, he should keep a waterpot and a deerskin, a rod and treebark [for covering him] and fire colored garments. (Vedabase)

 

Text 22

He should remain in the forest for twelve years, eight years, four years or else for two years or one year only as a saintly, thoughtful man who does not lose his mind because of [having to endure too much] hardship.

He should remain in the forest for either twelve years, eight years or four years as a saintly, thoughtful man or else for two years or one year as well, in his intelligence not being bewildered about the hardship. (Vedabase)

 

Text 23

When he because of disease or old age cannot perform his duties any longer for advancing in knowledge and spiritual life, he must refrain from taking food.

When either diseased or too old being unable to do his duties for advancing in knowledge and the spiritual life, must he refrain from taking food. (Vedabase)

 

Text 24

Placing the fire element within himself he should give up the false self of being identified with the body and as good as possible fully merge with the complete of the elements he is composed of.

Properly placing the fire element within himself he should give up the false self of being identified with the body and merge completely in, as it is, the combined of the five elements only. (Vedabase)

 

Text 25

[To lead his functions back] to their causes he merges the apertures of his body with the sky, his different vital airs with the air, his body heat with the fire, his blood, mucus and urine with water and the remainder [of his hard tissues] he merges with the earth [compare with 1.15: 41-42 and 3.6: 12].

A person knowing the self finds the cause of his apertures in the sky; the different airs moving within in the air; the cause of the body heat he finds in fire; the blood, mucus and urine find with him their cause in the water, and the cause of the remainder [of the hard tissues] is found in the earth [compare with 1.15: 41-42 and 3.6: 12]. (Vedabase)


Text 26-28

Speech and its organ belong to the god of fire, the hands and their dexterity belong to Indra, the legs and their power to move belong to Vishnu and the genitals with their sexual desire belong to the Prajâpati. The rectum and its bowel activity is of Mrityu [Death] and the aural sense associated with the sounds should be assigned to the [deities of the] directions. Touch and its organ belong to the wind god [Vâyu]. Eyesight along with its forms oh King, one should assign to the sun and the tongue and its rule belong to water while smell and its odors should be consigned to the earth.

The speech with its organ belongs to the God of Fire, the hands and their dexterity belong to Indra, the legs and their power to move belong to Vishnu and the genitals with the sexual desire belong to the Prajâpati. The rectum and its bowel activity is of Mrityu [Death] and also should the aural sense to the sounds be assigned to the [deities of the] directions and the touch and its organ be assigned to the windgod [Vâyu]. Eyesight with its forms, o King, one should assign to the Sun and to water and its ruler belong the tongue while smell and its odors should be consigned to the earth. (Vedabase)

 

Text 29-30

The mind and its desires belong to Candra, the intelligence and its subject matter belong to the Supreme One of Education [Brahmâ], the false ego of the 'I' and 'mine' actions and its karma belong to Rudra [S'iva], the consciousness and its concept of existence belong to the Knower of the Field [the soul, see B.G. 13: 1-4] and the modes and their modifications belong to the Beyond. The [identification with the element of] earth [must be led back] to the water, the water to the lights of the luminaries, the brightness to the air, the air to the sky, the sky to the material conception of life, the false ego to that what constitutes the material energy: the complete of the cosmic reality [the mahat-tattva], and that reality dissolves into the primary state of nature [the unmanifested energy of pradhâna, see 3.26: 10] which also has its source: the imperishable [Supersoul].

The mind with its desires belongs to Candra, the intelligence and its subject matter to the Supreme of Education, the false ego of the 'I' and 'Mine' actions with its karma belongs to Rudra [S'iva], the consciousness with its concept of existence belongs to the Knower of the Field [see B.G. 13: 1-4] and the modes and their entities belong to the Beyond. The earth to the water, the water to the lights of the luminaries, the brightness to the air, the air to the sky, the sky to the materialistic conception, the false ego to that: the material energy, that into the complete of the reality [the mahat-tattva], the reality into the primary nature [with the unmanifest the pradhâna, see 3.26: 10] and that together belongs to the Supersoul. (Vedabase)

 

Text 31

Thus understanding that the imperishable soul, that consists of nothing but the consciousness that remains [after this merging], is of the same quality as the Supersoul, one['s individual, isolated existence] ceases like firewood that has been consumed by fire.'

Thus is one of the Supreme of one's soul, being of the same quality in understanding the remaining balance, completely spiritual and so should one thus cease his existence like flames of which the source has burnt up. (Vedabase)


 

 

 

Creative Commons License
The text and audio are offered under the conditions of the
Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License.
The picture is titled: 'Eight Yogis', Number Eight of the Ishana Suit, Playing Card from a 32-
Suit Dashavatara (Ten Avatars) Ganjifa Set, India, Rajasthan, Mewar , circa 1800.
Courtesy:
LACMA.
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