Gādhi: a king who came as the son of Kus'āmbu. Of Gādhi there was the daughter Satyavatī who by the brahmin Ricīka was requested to be his wife, but not considering him fit replied King Gādhi that son of Bhrigu: 'Please deliver me as a dowry to this daughter of the Kus'a-dynasty we belong to, one thousand horses as brilliant as the light of the moon with each one black ear... (see further S.B. 9.15: 4).

Gāna: singing, song.

Gāndhārī: the loyal wife of king Dhritarāshthra and the mother of a hundred sons. Blindfolded herself out of compassion with her blind husband (see S.B. 1.13).

Gāndīva: name of the bow of Arjuna, the great bowman.

Gāyatrī: mantra restoring the relationship with God and Lordship. By the Vaishnava's for the sake of initiation kept secret, but in mayavada bhakti and to the common Hindu known in the form of: om bhur bhuva svaha, tat savitur varenyām, bhargo devasya dhimahi, dhyo yonah prachodhayat, which means as much as:

'The original form of the body,
the life-force and the supreme abode;
that source of life most excellent,
that divine luster we meditate -
may this light illumine our intellect.' (listen to
this prayer).

- Three-feet metre. The gāyatrī as a four times three-feet metre goes from the beginning with om as:

bhur bhuva svaha
tat savitur varenyām
bhargo devasya dhimahi
dhyo yonah prachodhayat

 Gadādhara: name of the Supreme Lord as the carrier of the club.

Gadādhara Pandita: Pańca-tattva-incarnation of S'rī mate Rādhārānī; most intimate associate of Lord Caitanya. Teacher of Mādhava Upadhyāya. Sannyāsī.

Gadāgraja: Krishna as the elder brother of Gada (see S.B. 9.24: 46).

Gajendra: the elephant, figuring for the attachment to family matters, that was captured by a crocodile as a representative of the grip of māyā. The prayers of Gajendra model the prayer of the attached person in times of trouble (S.B. 8.2 &3).

Gana: (flock, troop, multitude, number, tribe, series), class of living beings, one usually speaks of the animate and inanimate beings, the moving and the not moving, the fauna and the flora (zee also Vasus).

- Attendant of lord S'iva.

- A company, any assemblage or association of men formed for the attainment of the same aims.

- A sect.

- A small body of troops or 27 chariots and as many elephants, 81 horses, and 135 foot soldiers or 3 gulmas (see also akshauhinī).

- A series or group of asterisms or lunar mansions classed under three heads: that of the gods, that of the men, and that of the Rākshasas.

Gandharvas: the supreme heavenly singers (sometimes chastised for being demoniac in their propensity for gambling, see S.B.: 9.7: 3) (see upadeva, apsara and Tumburu).

Ganesha: the demigod with the elephant-head in charge of material opulence and freedom from misfortune. Plays no part in the Bhāgavatam and belongs as the son of Lord S'iva to that culture.

Ganges: the holy river flowing from the lotusfeet of Vishnu through the entire universe. It is recommended to take a bath in the river Ganges for atonement and purification (see also S.B. 5-17).

Garbādhna samskāra: purification ritual for procreation; with the vaishnavas: extra rounds of japa (50).

- First purification rite (samskāra) of ten which determines all life of the vedic person. It serves to get someone born in the spiritual sphere.

Garbhodakas'āyī Vishnu: second purusha-avatāra; the form in which Kāranodakas'āyī  Vishnu enters each universe to generate all the diversity.

Garuda: a gigantic eagle carrying Lord Vishnu everywhere.

- Symbolizes the authority of the Scriptural Truth, as such also called Stotra. 'On the wings of the hymns' (S.B. 3.21: 34).

- Also called the son of Tārkshya or Kas'yapa: see (S.B. 6.6: 21-22).

Gaudya-vaishnava: another name for Caitanya-vaishnava s to the region of its origin.

- Devotees of Lord Krishna in disciplic succession after Lord S'rī  Caitanya  Mahāprabhu (see also sampradāya).

Gauracandra (of Gaura - gold and Candra - moon): another name for Lord S'rī Caitanya  Mahāprabhu.

Gaurakisora dāsa Bābājī: the spiritual master of S'rīla  Bhaktisiddhānta  Sarasvatī  Thhākura (see also paramparā-method).

Gauranga: name of Lord Caitanya relating to His 'golden' color ('gaur').

Gaurasundara: ('the golden beauty') another name for Lord S'rī  Caitanya  Mahāprabhu.

Gautama: one of the seven sages of this manvantara (see rishi and S.B. 8.13: 5).

- Name relating to Gotama, the founder of the Nyāya philosophy.

- Name mentioned in the Bhāgavatam in different enumerations of sages (see e.g. S.B. 1.19: 9-10, 6.15: 12-15 en 9.4: 22).

- Mentioned as being wed into the Mudgala-branch of the offspring of Pūru (in which also is found Kuru, the ancestor of the Pāndavas) with Ahalyā from whom S'atānanda was begotten (S.B. 9.21: 34, and see family-tree).

- Name also associated with Kripācārya.

Ghee: clarified butter. A standard of the vedic kitchen used often for oblations in the fire.

Ghostyānandi: a self-sacrificing, preaching devotee living among devotees.

Giris'a: from giri, mountain; refers to the Lord of the Mountain Kailāsa or S'iva.

Gītā: abbreviation of the term Bhagavad  Gītā. Also: Gitopanishad (see Upanishad).

Go-dāsa: servant of the senses. (see also go-svāmī).

Gokula: (cow village), also called Vraja (place for keeping cattle); village where Krishna was taken by His father Vasudeva directly after His birth in the prison of the evil-minded uncle Kamsa. Later on moved the entire community fleeing from Kamsa to Vraja in Vrindāvana (see also S.B. 10.11).

Goloka: name of Krishna's planet, Krishna's abode. Krishna's world.

- Also: Krishnaloka; the world wherein Krishna eternally lives in the company of His pure devotees; it is the most elevated of all material and spiritual worlds.

- His personal residences, Dvārakā, Mathurā and Vrindāvana.

Goodness: one of the three modes of material nature. Under her influence does the one who is involved in it find happiness, purity, self-control, calm, humility and modesty. This mode is controlled by Vishnu (see (sattva - guna).

Gopāla: Krishna as a cowherd, 'the one tending the cows'.

Gopāla Bhatta Gosvāmī: one of the six Vaishnava spiritual masters who directly followed Lord S'rī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and systematically presented His teachings (see gosvāmī).

Gopīs en gopas: cowgirls en -boys; the youthful companions of Krishna during His youth in Vrindāvana, the place where Krishna grew up. In their pure love for Him they embody the supreme of devotion unto the Lord.

Go-svāmī: 'master of the senses'. Title for an ācārya.

- Someone in perfect control with his mind and senses, contrary to the godāsa, the servant of the senses or the materialistic person (sometimes part of the title of a great sage or an ācārya).

- One of the six great wise of Vrindāvana, the intimate disciples of Caitanya Mahāprabhu: Rūpa Gosvāmī, Sanātana Gosvāmī, Raghunātha Bhatta Gosvāmī, Jīva Gosvāmī, Gopāla Bhatta Gosvāmī and Raghunātha Dāsa Gosvāmī. They elaborated on S'rī Caitanya's teachings in numerous scriptures on the science of devotional service (see also: paramparā and picture).

Govinda (friend of the cows, he who pleases the cows): name of Krishna as the source of joy and happiness for the land, the cows and the senses of every living being (also: Gopāla).

Govinda dāsa Thhākur: an author of important vaishnava songs.

Grihastha: ās'rama of the married.

- Spiritual department relating to the life of a householder living according the scriptures.

- Second order or phase of spiritual life; the period of family and societal life in accord with scriptural precepts and regulations.

- Someone living according the norms for this ās'rama.

-'The five daily sacrifices enjoined for a householder are (1) sacrifice to Brahman by studying the Vedas, (2) sacrifice to the forefathers by making offerings to them, (3) sacrifice to all creatures by putting aside a portion of one's meals, (4) sacrifice to human beings by extending hospitality and (5) sacrifice to the demigods by performing fire sacrifices and so on (see also S.B. 7.14).

- As a negative condition of attachment and downfall criticized by Krishna in S.B. 10.60: 52-53.

Grihastha-ās'rama: another name for the department of the grihastha, or the householder.

Gudāka (Gudākes'a): nickname for Arjuna: he who has overcome sleep.

Guhyaka: guardians of Kuvera's treasures; term used for followers of S'iva (see e.g. S.B. 10.10: 6, see also Yaksha).

- Name of a class of demi-gods who like the Yaksha s are attendants of Kuvera (the god of wealth) and guardians of his treasures.

Gunas: the modes or basic qualities of material nature: tamo, rajo  and sattva guna: ignorance, passion and goodness; marked by (respectively): matter (slowness), movement and knowledge. Ruled by: (respectively) S'iva, Brahmā and Vishnu (see also avidhya, Māyā and B.G. 18.a).

Guna-avatāras: the three incarnations directing material nature. Brahmā rules the passion, Vishnu the goodness and S'iva the ignorance (see also avatāra, S.B. 10.89: 18 and 12.8: 45).

Guroravajńā: the offense of mocking the Vedic literature and the literatures after it.

Guru: teacher; spiritual master: selfrealized soul capable to lead people on the way of selfrealization and thus to liberate from the cycle of birth and death.

- Spiritual teacher or master also called swamī (see gosvāmī, ācārya and mayavadi)

- In two kinds: dīkshā and s'ishya: respectively initiation and instruction gurus.

- In two categories: māyāvāda and paramparā gurus: respectively preaching not and actual preaching from a disciplic succession or certain tradition. Māyāvāda tends to me more philosophical, only jńāna, and paramparā tends more to priesthood. The latter are also called ācārya s, spiritual teachers of example, while the former are more difficult to follow as they are less of equality and modeling in devotion.

- A third duplet is formed by the caittya-guru and the ā cārya: the gurus inside and outside of oneself (see S.B. 11.29: 6).

 Guru-kula: the ās'rama, or school of the spiritual teacher, where the head of the family sends his children when they have reached the age of five.

- The community of devotees around a spiritual master.


Search the Lexicon  


Sanskrit Dictionary


S'rīmad Bhāgavatam | Bhagavad Gītā | Nederlandse versie


Feed-back | Links | Downloads | MusicPictures | What's New | Search | Donations