Uccaihs'ravā: a horse, born from the nectar originating from the churning of the ocean, and is considered a representative of Krishna (see 8.8: 3 and 11.16: 18).

Udāna-vāyu: the air in the body going upward and controlled by the breathing technique of ashthānga-yoga (see vāyu).

Uddhava: (sacrificial fire, a festival, holiday; joy, pleasure), the name of Krishna's best friend and cousin. Krishna talks extensively to him at the end of His earthly presence in Canto 11. In the tenth Canto chapters 46 & 47 he mediates between Krishna and the gopis.

- S'rī Hari-vams'a states that Uddhava is the son of Vasudeva's brother Devabhāga. Thus he is Lord Krishna's cousin-brother.

- Krishna calls him a disciple of Brihaspati (11.23: 2).

Uddhava Gītā: the chapters seven to twenty-nine of the eleventh Canto that make up an alternative Gītā wherein Krishna explains how to live His love in His absence.

Udgātā: the priest singing the Sāma-veda hymns (see also ritvik).

Ugra-karma: bad, harmful action (see also karma).

Ugrasena: also called Āhuka, 'the one of sacrifice'. The old king of the Yadus, imprisoned by his own son Kamsa and freed by Krishna. Ugrasena's daughters Kamsā, Kamsavatī, Kankā, S'ūrabhū and Rāshthrapālikā were the wives of the younger brothers of Vasudeva the father of Krishna (9.24: 21-23, see also Sātvatas).

Umā: (splendor, light; fame, reputation; quiet, tranquility; night). Goddess, one of the eleven wives of S'iva (see 3.12: 13) also called Pārvatī and Durgā; the name is said to be derived from umā!, "O don't", the exclamation addressed to Pārvatī by her mother not to practice austerities.

- Name of several women.

Universe: (jagat);

1) The entire material creation, consisting of countless of universes.

2) Galaxy.

3) A closed sphere with seven material covers, layers or sheaths, in which one finds fourteen planetary systems, whom each consist of countless planets (see also dvīpa and loka).

4) The Living Being.

Upa-: prefix for verbs and nouns expressing: to go near, undergo, approaching; by the side of, with, together with, under, down; direction towards, nearness, or in other words: a contiguity in space, time, number, degree, resemblance, and relationship, with the idea of subordination and inferiority, like the finger next to the little finger would be 'upa' (see also upapurāna and upadeva).

Upādāna: the material cause, the ingredients; the Lord is the exhibitor of all material causes (6.9: 42).

Upādānakārana: (logic of) the material cause (see also nimitta).

Upadeva: an inferior or secondary deity like a Yaksha, Gandharva, Apsara, Vidyādhara and such.

Upa-dharma: moralizing without love for the truth relating to Krishna (sathya-dharma). Subreligious activity without real servitude.

- The dharma concocted into something else (see 7.15: 12-14).

Upahanyām: the peace broken (destroyed) by unwanted people.

Upanishads: the underlying mystery, the secret doctrine. Philosophical part of the Vedas, a hundred-eight in number (see also Veda) meant to comprehend the personal nature of the Absolute Truth. In the Bhāgavatam they are summarized in 10.87.

Upa-purāna, secondary or minor, a smaller collection of classical stories. Also counted in eighteen as listed in the Kūrma-purāna: 1. Sānatkumāra, 2. Nārasimha (fr. Nrisimha) 3. Bhāmda, 4. S'iva-dharma, 5. Daurvāsasa, 6. Nāradīya, 7. Kāpila, 8. Vāmana, 9. Aus'anasa, 10. Brahmānda, 11. Vāruna, 12. Kālikā-purāna, 13. Māhes'vara, 14. Sāmba, 15. Saura, 16. Pārās'ara, 17. Mārīca, 18. Bhārgava (see Purāna).

Upāsana: (serving, service, attendance, waiting upon, respect; homage, adoration, worship) Worship.

- With Rāmānuja, consisting of five parts, viz.

Abhigamana or approach,
Upādāna or preparation of offering,
Ijyā or oblation,
Svādhyāya or recitation,
Yoga or devotion.

Upāsana-kānda: the part of the Vedas dealing with devotional service (see also under Vedas).

Upavedas: 'secondary Vedas.' A class of texts on sacred sciences, composed by rishis over the course of time to amplify and apply the vedic knowledge. The four prominent upavedas (each encompassing numerous texts) are:

1 Arthaveda (statecraft),
2 Āyurveda (health),
3 Dhanurveda (military science) and
4 Gandharvaveda (music and the arts).

Also sometimes classed as upavedas are the:

5 Sthapatyaveda (on architecture) and the
6 Kāma s'astras (texts on erotic love). (
source: Hindu dictionary).

Upendra: Another name of Lord Vāmana the son of Aditi and Kas'yapa (8.18).

-Lit.: 'The younger brother of Lord Indra.'

- The name of an expansion of the Lord: 'Two sons took birth from the womb of Marutvatī: Marutvān and Jayanta. Jayanta, who is an expansion of Lord Vāsudeva, is known as Upendra' (S.B. 6.6: 8).

Uragas: 'breast-going', the 'semi-divine snakes or serpents', a term used for people of excell.

Ūrdhva-retah: someone whose seed 'streams upwards', internal drive by sexual abstinence. With the Kumāras (the four sons of Brahmā who kept the child-form) leading to four principles of knowledge: sankhya (analysis), tapas (penance), vairaghya (detachment) and yoga (see 11.17: 25).

Urugāya ('sung by many'): the Lord as the carrier of the conchshell.

Urukrama: (great order, course, arrangement) the Lord with the long strides, Vāmanadeva, also called the 'great adventurer' or the performer of transcendental feats (see also Upendra).

Urvas'ī: heavenly society girl that married King Purūravā; she was cursed by Mitra en Varuna who in her presence deposited their seed in a clay pot and from that seed were born the sages Āgastya and Vasishthha. (6.18: 6) Her six sons with Purūravā were: Āyu, S'rutāyu, Satyāyu, Raya, Vijaya en Jaya (9.15:1).

Us'anā: another name of S'ukrācarya or Kavi Bhārgava, the spiritual master of the asuras. Krishna calls Himself as such the One among the great thinkers (B.G. 10: 37).

- He is also called Rāma.

Uttama: (supreme, utter) devotion on the highest level: to recognize Krishna in each and all (see 11.2: 45 and also mahā-bhāgavata).

Uttamas'loka: name of the Lord Praised in the Verses.

Uttānapāda: the son of Svāyambhuva Manu and the father of Dhruva Mahārāja.

Uttarā: mother of Parīkchit and wife of Abhimanyu, the son born from the marriage between Subhadrā, Krishna's sister, and Arjuna. In 1.8: 9 she requested Krishna to protect her and her unborn child, Parīkchit , from the scorching rays of the brahmāstra weapon launched by As'vatthāmā (see also S.B. 1.7 & 8).  

Uttara-mimāmsa: the Vedāntic philosophy, see also mimāmsa and darshana.

Ūshā: 'dawn', daughter of Bāna who met Aniruddha in a dream and had Him brought to her palace after which He then was arrested (see 10.62).



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