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Sa | Sh

 

S'âlva: the demoniac member of the family that siding with S' i s' u p â l a fought with P r a d y u m n a, but because of his great power and magic was killed by K r i s h n a. He was reported to go to war with a flying fortress called Saubha (see 10:76-77).

S'ânti: peace.

S'âs'vata: durability, quality of the soul (used in B.G. 1.42, 2.20).

S'âstra: (order, command precept, rule, instruction advise, counsel) the vedic studies, the revealed instructions, treatises, the manuals, the body of teaching to the sacred scriptures of the V e d a s and U p a n i s h a d s (see also s'r u t i and V e d a).

S'abda: sound (known as K r i s h n a).

- A process of sacrificing sound in the controlled mind.

- Kind of p r a m â n a, or a certain truth of evidence.

- An 'object' of the senses (see v i s h a y a).

S'abda khe: K r i s h n a's expression 'I am the sound in the sky, the ether' (see B.G. 7: 7).

- Also called âkâs'a nâda in 12.6: 37(see also diviyam s'rotam).

- Hearing the sounds of all living beings in the ether belongs to the secondary siddhi dûra s'ravana ('remote hearing') mentioned in 11.15: 19.

S'abda-brahman: the oral tradition, culture of precept and ritual giving access to K r i s h n a -consciousness (s'âbhda-brahman: the V e d a).

- The spiritual sound manifesting itself in the vital breath, the senses and the mind (11.21: 36, and 11.15: 19). Mystically in selfrealization and socially in the tradition of the personal conveyance of the knowledge.

- S' r î l a  V i s' v a n â t h a  C a k r a v a r t î  T h h â k u r a explains the divisions of s'abdha as follows.

- The prâna phase of Vedic sound, known as parâ, is situated in the âdhâra-cakra;
- the mental phase, known as pas'yantî, is situated in the area of the navel, on the manipûraka-cakra;
- the intellectual phase, known as madhyamâ, is situated in the heart area, in the anâhata-cakra.
- Finally, the manifest sensory phase of Vedic sound is called vaikharî (see also
c a k r a).

S'akti: power, energy. In three types: higher, in between and lower energy:

1) Antaranga-sakti of K r i s h n a and His expansion; His transcendental opulence.

2) Tatashta-sakti concerning the individual soul.

3) Bahiranga-sakti: the material energy.

On speaks of the higher and lower energy of respectively V i s h n u - s'akti and M a h â m â y â - sakti (see also p o t e n c y).

- The nine s'aktis or powers of the Lord: vimalâ, purity; utkarshinî, exalted state; jñâna, knowledge; kriyâ, activity; yogâ, yogic powers; prahvî, modesty; satyâ, truthfulness; îs'ânâ,sovereighnty and anugrahâ, grace (mentioned in 11.27: 25-26).

- Sakti as opposed to s'akti means adherence, attachment, devotion or addiction to.

S'akti-aves'a-avatâra: specially empowered incarnations,

- The s'aktyâves'a-avatâras are categorized into:

(1) Forms of divine absorption (bhagavad-âves'a), such as K a p i l a d e v a or R i s h a b h a d e v a.
(2) Divinely empowered forms (s'aktyâves'a), of whom seven are foremost:
1 S' e s h a N â g a in the V a i k u n t h h a world, empowered for the personal service of the Supreme Lord (sva-sevana-s'akti),
2
A n a n t a d e v a, empowered to bear all the planets within the universe (bhû-dhârana-S'akti),
3
L o r d B r a h m â , empowered with the energy to create the cosmic manifestation (srîshthi-s'akti),
4
C a t u h s a n a, or the K u m â r a s, specifically empowered to distribute transcendental knowledge (jñâna-s'akti),
5
N â r a d a M u n i, empowered to distribute devotional service (bhakti-s'akti),
6
M a h â r â j a P r î t h u, specifically empowered to rule and maintain the living entities (pâlana-s'akti) and
7
P a r a s u r â m a , specifically empowered to cut down rogues and demons (dushtha-damana-s'akti).'(Purport CC madhya 20,246, see also a v a t â r a).

- Jesus Christ is also considered a s'akti-aves'a avatâra.

S'ambhu: lord S' i v a as the beneficent.

S'amî: a small tree called Acacia Suma, also called Aapta (see pic.), a type of mimosa with cream-colored flowers and very hard wood that is used for obtaining fire by friction. So A g n i, or fire, is called s'amî-garbha, 'having the S'ami for its womb.' It is sometimes personified and worshipped as a goddess, s'amî-devi.

- Mentioned in the discussion of the symptoms of K a l i- y u g a as the tree that all other trees will degrade to (see 12.2: 12-16).

- The mantra 'samî-garbhâd agnim mantha' 'from inside the s'amî is the fire generated' was used by P u r û r a v â when he with s'amî-wood kindled fire meditating on U r v a s 'i mediteerde (zie 9.14: 44-45).

S'ankara: lord S' i v a as the cause of prosperity; the mightiest of the eleven R u d r a's, from whom the ten less powerful ones actually have originated.

- Causing prosperity, auspicious , beneficent.

- Name of a son of K a s' y a p a and Danu (see also 6.6.: 27-31).

- Name of various authors and commentators, especially of S' a n k a r â c â r y a.

- A particular R â g a or musical mode.

S'ankarâcârya: v e d â n t i c philosopher and translator of the G î t â (lived 788 -820 A.D., but to tradition 200 B.C.). He revived brahmanism preaching the oneness of the soul with B r a h m a n; his leaning and sanctity were in such repute that he, also performing miracles, was held an incarnation of lord S' i v a in his defending the impersonal aspect of K r i s h n a 's teaching. His philosophy is often ranked as s'ankarism under the impersonalists and together with the voidism of the buddhists fought by the v a i s h n a v a's as a m â y â v a d a threat to their personalist approach and defense of the classical order of the Indian society. S'ankara also himself contributed with his defense of vedic culture against the buddhists.

- His four principal disciples were Padma-pâda, Hastâmalaka, Sures'vara or Mandana, and Trothaka; another of his disciples, Ânanda-giri, wrote a history of his controversial exploits, called S'ankara-vijaya.

- Tradition makes him the founder of one of the principal Saiva sects, the Das'ana-nâmi-Dandins or 'Ten-named Mendicants'.

- He is the reputed author of a large number of original works, such as the Âtma-bodha, Ânanda-lahari, Jñâna-bodhinî, Mani-ratna-mâlâ; and commentaries on the U p a n i s h a d s the Brahma-mimâmsâ or V e d â n t a - s û t r a, the B h a g a v a d - g î t â, and the M a h â b h â r a t a.

- Name of various teachers and authors.

S'aranya: K r i s h n a as the Protector, the refuge, the Giver of Shelter (see 10.66: 37).

S'arva: he who kills with arrows, a name of lord S' i v a (see 12.10: 35).

S'atarûpâ: wife of S v â y a m b h u v a M a n u, see (3.12: 54), and the mother of D e v a h û t i.

- Among the ladies is K r i s h n a S'atarûpâ (see also M o h i n i  M û r t i, 11.16: 25).

- Vedic equivalent of Eva, the first created woman.

S'auca: purity (for self-awareness also spiritual). Part of n i y a m a (see also V i d h i). Relates to the defense of respect for the celibate state, the original person, the children's soul (see also d â n a).

S'aunaka Rishi: the chief of the sages who were present in N a i m i s h â r a n y a when S û t a G o s v â m î related the S' r î m a d - B h â g a v a t a m.

S'auri: (from s'ûra, the mighty hero and s'aurya, the heroism, the prowess): scion of S'ûra (9.24: 27).

- Name of K r i s h n a (see 10.32) as the son of the strong one, knowing His father V a s u d e v a.

S'ibi: a king famous for his protecting a pigeon who had taken shelter of him, for which he gave his own flesh to a hawk and thus attained heaven. Praised in 1.12: 20 en 10.72: 21.

- S'ibi, Vara, Krimi and Daksha were the four born from Us'înara (9.23: 3-4).

S'ikhâ: tuft of hair left over on the back of the shaven head of male devotees. Mark of v a i s h n a v a devotees living in the temple (see also guru-kula).

S'ikhsâshthaka: the eight verses written by Lord S' r î  C a i t a n y a  M a h â p r a b h u, that glorify the chanting of the holy name of the Lord (see the bhajan).

S'ila: to live 'of the stones' to live on gathering ears of corn left in the field, to live vedically on the dole (zie also 6.7: 36, 7.15: 30, 11.17; 41 & 43).

S'ishya: onderricht worden, instructie ontvangen (see g u r u).

S'is'upala: ruler of Cedi, opponent of K r i s h n a, His arch-enemy siding with J a r â s a n d h a and R u k m î, ultimately beheaded by His c a k r a. Is one of the three demoniac incarnations of J a y a, the fallen gatekeeper of V a i k u n t h h a. K r i s h n a stole R u k m i n î, His first wife away before he could marry her (see 10.53).

S'is'umâra-cakra: ('dolphin-disc'): the celestial sky that is called V â s u d e v a because one can directly perceive K r i s h n a that way in the form of cosmic, galactic time or the milky way in the form of a dolphin (see picture).

- Also called the lotus of creation, the universe unfolded, from which B r a h m â was born, sprouting from the navel of V i s h n u.

- Name for the impersonal aspect of time of K r i s h n a (see also k â l a and c a k r a).

- There is also a mantra called s'is'umâra: 'Our obeisances unto this resting place of all the luminous worlds, unto the master of the demigods, the great Personality in the form of Time, upon whom we meditate' (see 5.23: 8).

S'iva: ('the auspicious') demigod, also known as S' a n k a r a (causing prosperity), B h a v a (of existence), S' a m b h u (as the benficent), M r i d a (the compassionate) or R u d r a (the gruesome), G i r i s 'a (the lord of the mountain), S' a r v a (he who kills with arrows) and M a h â d e v a (the great god). God of destruction, rules over the mode of ignorance. Meditates with Parvati on the mountain Kailâsa. Also called the y o g i of y o g i's. Originates from B r a h m â with more qualities than his 'father' himself (see: 3.12: 7). Known with drum and j a p a and through his cosmic dance at the end of creation.

- From B r a h m â he received also the names of: Manyu, M a n u, Mahinasa, Mahan, Ritadhvaja, Ugraretâ, B h a v a, K â l a, Vâmadeva and Dhritavrata. His eleven wives are Dhî, Dhriti, Rasalâ, U m â, Niyut, Sarpi, I l â, A m b i k â, I r â v a t î, Svadhâ and Dîkshâ are (3.12: 12-13).

- Pure devotee standing for for the destruction of the universe at the end of B r a h m â 's life, his progenitor.

- False ego transforms into the mind, ten s e n s e s (the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, skin, hands, feet, voice, genitals and anus), and five physical elements (earth, water, fire, air and ether). Lord S'iva appears in a special linga form in each of these sixteen substances and can be worshiped in one of these forms or particular l i n g a s to obtain the mystic opulences pertaining to it. Thus Lord S'iva's âkâs'a-linga bestows the opulences of ether, his jyotir-linga bestows the opulences of fire, and so on (see pp 10.88: 4).

- 'S'iva, always united with his s' a k t i, is prayed to in his three manifest features of guna: the emotion (his s a t t v a), the authority (his r a j a s) and the inertia (his t a m a s), and is thus the (embodiment of the) threefold of ego (10.88: 3).

S'ivânanda Sena: great g r i h a s t h a-devotee of Lord S' r î  C a i t a n y a  M a h â p r a b h u.

S'loka: S a n s k r i t verse.

S'ravana: listening, to hear about the Lord; the first of the nine phases of devotional service (see further B h â g a v a t a  d h a r m a).

S'raddhâ: belief; finding sympathy to engage in the sphere of devotional service; trust (see b h â v a).

S'râddha: ritual held for the sake of the deceased forefathers.

S'râddhadeva: S a t y a v r a t a, the present M a n u.

S'ravanam kîrtanam visnoh: the way of devotion of listening to the teachings and stories about Lord V i s h n u and the glorification of His fame (see B h â g av a t a  D h a r m a).

S'rî: Lord.

- The most beautiful.

- A name of the Goddess of Fortune (zie ook L a k s h m î).

S'rîdhara Svâmî: V a i s n a v a â c â r y a in de line van Vishnu Svâmî (see p a r a m a p a r â).

- The writer of the oldest v a i s n a v a -commentary in existence on the S' r î m a d - B h â g a v a t a m en de B h a g a v ad - G î t â.

S'rîmad Bâgavatam (Bhagavata Purâna): The most beautiful about Him, the Fortunate one. The K r i s h n a - 'Bible', spoken by S' u k a d e v a  G o s v â m i, the son of V y â s a d e v a who wrote down the story of K r i s h n a. In this book, a collection of classical stories, of about 18000 verses is each and everything described of b h a k t i - y o g a as also the entire life of Lord K r i s h n a and other a v a t â r a's of V i s h n u; it is a compendium of vedic wisdom that contains the creme of the vedic scriptures ( go to the S'rîmad Bhâgavatam on the internet).

- The most important of the eighteen main p u r â n a's also called the paramahamsa samhitâ (see s a m h i t a).

- One of the six V i s h n u -p u r â n a's.

S'rîmate  Râdhârâni: adolescent girlfriend of K r i s h n a, the most important g o p i. worshiped as K r i s h n a's eternal pleasure-potency. Lord C a i t a n y a's most important identification in b h a k t i (see also R â d h â r â n i).

S'ringâra: one of the five direct or primary r a s a s or manifestations of love who are considered the main r a s a s: the amorous that in marriage (mâdhurya) is set apart in svakhya, mature and parakhya, youthful.

S'ringi: the name of the son of r i s h i S'amîka who avenged his father, offended by Emperor P a r i k c h i t, with the curse that the emperor after seven days would die of a snakebite (see 1.18: 24-46).

S'rîvatsa: a mark on the breast of Lord K r i s h n a consisting of three white hairs.

- A mark described by the Vaishnava-toshanî as being a curl of fine yellow hair on the upper portion of the right side of Lord V i s h n u's chest. This mark is not for ordinary devotees. It is a special mark of V i s h n u or K r i s h n a.

S'rota: a way of offering sound by passive listening. Counterpart of s' a b d a: the offering of sound of the controlled mind; m a n t r a and b h a j a n (see a p a u r u s h a and d i v y a m  s' r o t a m).

S'ruti: that what is heard; the spoken word; relates to the oral reception of vedic knowledge (see also s m r i t i).

- Scriptures directly received from God Himself, the V e d a s and U p a n i s h a d s, unlike the scriptures counted as the s m r i t i.

S'ûdra: lowborn, laborer, comrade, friend (see v a r n a).

- Workers, artisans and artists, who deliver service unto the other three divisions of v a r n a. 

S'ûdrânî: S' û d r a-woman.

S'uka: 'parrot' mentioned as a quality of devotees in strict following living and speaking, improvising and selfrealizing loyal to the s' a s t r a s (see a n u k a r a n a and a n u s a r a n a).

S'ukadeva Gosvâmi: the name of the first spiritual master, the â c â r y a, who explained the S' r i m a d  B h â g a v a t a m, the story of K r i s h n a to M a h a r â j a  P a r i k c h i t. the devotees of K r i s h n a follow him all in that. He is the son of V y â s a s a d e v a who incited by N â r a d a  M u n i wrote down the B h â g a v a t a m.

S'ukrâcârya: ('the seminal teacher') a 'son of B h r i g u', a sage, the spiritual master of the a s u r a's, also called Kavi Bhârgava or U s' a n â, an identity of K r i s h n a; a scion of sage M â r k a n d e y a (4.1: 45).

- King Yayâti married a daughter of S'ukrâcârya called Devayânî from whom Y a d u was born, the founder of the Y a d u-dynasty Lord K r i s h n a belonged to (9.18: 4).

- Donated a conch when B a l i was reawakened after being defeated by I n d r a (8.15: 6).

- Cursed B a l i for his disobedience so that he lost all his land to Lord V â m a n a d e v a (see 8.20: 15).

- S'ukra later excused B a l i for his imperfections (see 8.23: 15).

- He had two sons Shanda en Amarka who tried to educate P r a h l â d a, but failed to talk him out of his love for V i s h n u (7.8: 2).

S'vetadvîpa: the white island in the milk-ocean of Lord V i s h n u ruling there as the Supreme Lord A n i r u d d h a, the Lord of the Mind (S.B. 8.4: 17-24).

S'vetâsvatara Upanishad: see U p a n i s a d s.

S'yâmasundara: name of K r i s h n a as the 'beautiful dark one'

 - Beauty of the gray skin. Supreme form of K r i s h n a as a youth in V r i n d â v a n a, known with peacock-feather, flute and yellow d h o t i.

(Senses: i n d r i y a, or go to s e n s e s under s.)

Shad-bhuja: the followers of C a i t a n y a  M a h â p r a b h u also worship Him in His six-armed form of shad-bhuja. Two arms carry the waterpot and d a n d a of the s a n n y â s î C a i t a n y a  M a h â p r a b h u, two arms carry the flute of Lord K r i s h n a, and two arms carry the bow and arrow of S' r î  R â m a c a n d r a. This shad-bhuja form is the actual purport of verse 11.5: 34 (see there for the picture).

Shath-guna: the six qualities of a material existence: hunger, thirst, lamentation, old age, illusion and death (see next term).

Shath-ûrmi: the six forms of material misery, the six 'waves' of the ocean of matter: thirst, hunger, decay, death, grief and illusion. Also known as the four forms of misery: birth, disease, old age and death (see s h a t h - g u n a).

Shath-varga: the six enmies with the six senses (the five plus the mind) of lust, anger, greed, madness, intoxication and envy (see 11.26: 24) also called six plunderers, shath dasyûn (in 7.8: 10).

Siddhaloka, the place of no return beyond the main three l o k a s, where the ones of perfection go to (see also v a i k u n t h h a).

- The world of the Blest (M.W.).

Siddhas: class of people, the perfected, the perfect, the self-realized, seers, fortunetellers saints, those of magical arts or endowed with supernatural power.

Siddhânta: the final conclusion of the V e d a's that realization of one's s v a r û p a in relation of service unto K r i s h n a gives the K r i s h n a - consciousness of unity in diversity or the acknowledgment of the Person of God in the (material) world (see also n y â y i k a, v e d â n t a and a c i n t h y a - b h e d a - a b h e d a - t a t t v a, and B.G. 9: 15).

- The fact of the creation not really being there, of His real oneness to the deluding temporal reality, of His sumultaneous being One and different, is discussed in chapter 11.28 and in 12.4: 23-24.

Siddhis: y o g i c perfections, mystical potencies, spiritual accomplishments that can be a hindrance in one's selfrealization. the are eight main siddhis:

1 The ability to identify with the smallest (animâ),
2 the biggest (mahimâ),
3 the heaviest (garimâ)
4 and the lightest (laghimâ)
5 and that one acting in one's own way (prâkâmyam),
6 finding access everywhere (prâpti)
7 and setting in motion the forces (vas'itva)
8 may have the supremacy (îs'itva).

(see also k a i l v a l y a and b h â g a v a t a  d h a r m a and S.B. 5.6: 1 about their being limitations, or S.B.: 9.4: 24-25, 11: 15 and 11.28: 42-43, 11.14 14 for them being of no interest to the devotees).

- Mentioned is also the siddhi of answering to whatever desire that seeks His favor: the kâmâvasâyitâ siddhi as number eight, fusing the garimâ with the laghimâ siddhi into one as being laghimâ (see 11.15: 4-5).

- There are eight primary siddhis, as mentioned above, ten secondary siddhis and five siddhi's specific for concentration in y o g a (see 11.15: 4-9):
The secondary ones are:

1 'In this body not to be plagued by hunger and thirst and such,
2 to hear things far away,
3 and to see things far away
4 to be transported with the speed of mind,
5 to assume any form at will,
6 to enter into the bodies of others,
7 to die at will,
8 to witness the sporting [of the heavenly girls] with the gods,
9 to be of perfect accomplishment to one's determination,
10- and to have one's commands fulfilled unimpeded are the ten secondary siddhis. 

The five siddhi's specific for concentrating in y o g a are:

1 To know the past, the present and the future,
2 to be free from the dualities,
3 to know the minds of others,
4 to check the potency of fire, the sun, water, poison and so on and
5 not to be conquered by others'. 

Sîtâ: the wife of R â m a the central character to the battle in the R a m â y a n a: she was kidnapped by the demon R â v a n a. Also called Janakî, as the daughter of J a n a k a. She was called Sita or 'furrow' because, so one explains, she was born from a furrow in the earth made by Janaka during the plowing that was done to prepare the earth for a sacrifice on his instigation to beget offspring, so she had the nickname Ayoni-ja, "not born from a womb". (sita, without the stripes means the clear light of the moon, pale, light, fettered joined with, while the c a n d r a of R â m a c a n d r a refers to the moon itself).

Skanda: (anything which jumps or hops, grasshopper; spurting, effusing, effusion, spilling, shedding; perishing, destruction; quick-silver) the 'Attacker', the name of K â r t t i k e y a, the son of S 'i v a or of A g n i; he is called the god of war being the leader of S 'i v a's hosts against the enemies of the gods. He is also leader of the demons of illness that attack children and also the god of burglars and thieves;

- A king or prince;

- A clever or learned man;

- The body.

Smaranam: constant remembrance of K r i s h n a (one of the nine methods of devotional service). (see also b h a g a v a t a - d h a r m a)

Smârta's: b r â h m a n a s, brahmins only interested in the outer appearance of the vedic rules and rites, in stead of cherishing Lord K r i s h n a, as the goal of the V e d a's.

Smriti: remembrance, the truth of the i t i h â s a s and p u r â n a s (see also v i b r a h m a h).

- Also called aihitiya

- Vedic knowledge is divided in srmiti and s' r u t i: that what was directly heard from God - the knowledge of the U p a n i s h a d s and the truth of the V e d a s - and that what was remembered as the srmiti - the description by enlightened souls as in the stories of the p u r â n a s (see also V e d a).

- Scriptures written by living beings under divine guidance, as much of importance as the s' r u t i (see s c r i p t u r e s, - r e v e a l e d).

- Scriptures further explaining on the original V e d a s and U p a n i s a d s (see p u r â n a s).

Soma (-rasa): the fermented sour juice of a creeper which mixed with clarified butter by brahmins is used in vedic rituals.

- Name of the moongod (see also C a n d r a).

Spirit: subtle element, mostly called 'the sixth sense', meaning that he admits, analyses, or blocks impulses entering through the senses; also known as 'the eleventh element', because its activity - thinking, feeling, willing - unites and is the supreme of the activity of the ten senses (see also S e n s e s).

- Also used to indicate the thinking, the brain-activity, for a certain integrity of it.

- In S a n s k r i t related to the terms m a n a s and b u d d h i, of which the last term relates more to the concept of a higher intelligence.

Spiritual ego: the true identity of the living being; another designation of the word soul (see also s v a r û p a, s v a d h a r m a, â t m â and a h a m k â r a).

- Spiritual identity, as confirmed through initiation (see s' i s h y a - g u r u).

Sthitaprajña: stable in transcendence. Established in wisdom. Balance.

Sthita-dhî(ra)-muni: (sthita -firmly established; dhîra - unmovable; muni - sage): someone who is always absorbed in K r i s h n a -consciousness and as a consequence is not bewildered by the material of nature or the operating modes (see g u n a's).

Strî: ('bearing children') woman (see y o s h i t a).

Subhadrâ: sister of K r i s h n a, married with A r j u n a. Is sung in the J a g a n n â t h a mantra (see bhajan).

Succession, disciplinary or spiritual (p a r a m p a r â): succession of spiritual teachers who handed down unaltered the spiritual teachings of the Lord.

Sudharmâ: the Lord His royal assembly hall in D v â r a k â which for those who entered wards off the s h a t h - û r m i six plagues of a material life viz. hunger, thirst, lamentation, delusion, old age and death (see 10.50: 54 and 10:70: 17).

Sudars'ana: Name of a V i d y â d h a r a by K r i s h n a delivered from his snake body (see 10:34).

Sudars'ana cakra: ('His tangible presence with the cyclic, the order of time') Lord V i s h n u s weapon in the form of a disc, referring to the vital power of t e j a s (see also c a k r a and s' i s' u m â r a and k â l a).

Sudyumna: see I l â.

Sukha: joy, happiness, well-being. The opposite of d u h k h a, unhappy. See also â n a n d a: eternal happiness, the happiness of the soul, and r â m a: satisfaction.

Sukritina: piety in devotion of service to the Lord keeping to the rules of the Scripture.

Suparna's: 'the brothers of G a r u d a'; a group of heavenly beings, the reciters of verse.

Supersoul: see P a r a m â t m â.

Sura: a god, divinity, deity, the sun but also a sage, a learned man, someone of the light, a believer, a god-fearing individual.

Surabhi: the cow of plenty, the cows in K r i s h n a l o k a. They provide an unlimited quantity of milk and are a holy symbol of vedic prosperity (see also k â m a d h e n u).

Sûra: the sun, a wise or learned man, teacher, enlightened soul, devotee, civilized person. As opposed to a s u r a, evil spirit, demon, person of desire, unenlightened soul, an enlightened soul void of material desires. The term is derived from light, sun, the sungod. A reference to being of enlightened service to God or not.

Sûryaloka: the sundisc; the world of the order of the sun (see also l o k a).

Sûrya: the sungod, the personification of the order of the sun as known by nature (see S.B. 5.22).

- For each month of the year there is a different representative of the sungod ruling (see 12.11: 33-45).

Sûrya-namskar: salutation to the sungod, or the order of solar time - S û r y a, by a series of â s a n a s that together form a prostration before K r i s h n a in the form of the Time and the light of the sun (see timequotes, 11: 11: 43-45, 11.27: 16-18; B.G. 7: 8 and the G â y a t r î).

Sûta: a son of a mixed marriage of a b r a h m i n father and k s h a t r i y a mother (see also p r a t i l o m a).

Sûta Gosvâmî: son of R o m a h a r s h a n a, a sage who before the sages that gathered in the forest of N a i m i s h â r a n y a recounted the talks between P a r î k c h i t and S u k a d e v a.

Sûtra: a deep vedic teaching comprised in a few words (see also s' l o k a).

- A thread, the primary of matter (p r a d h â n a or m a h a t - t a t t v a) as the thread of Him (see 11.9: 19 , 11: 15: 14, 11.22: 13, 11.24: 6 and B.G. 7: 7).

Svamî: another word for gosvâmî.

- Some of control over his mind and senses; title of someone in the renounced order (see s a n n y â s i, â c â r y a and g o s v â m i).

Sva-dharma: one's own nature, one's original nature (see e.g. 12.6: 70).

- The acquired sense of duty in devotional service.

- The specific duty bent on selfrealization of a certain living being in accordance with the religious principles.

Sva-dhyaya: study of oneself for the sake of selfrealization and unmotivated charity or voluntary service (see n i y a m a).

Svâmi: honorary title of spiritual teachers.

Svarloka: the heavenly planets or abodes of the demigods (see l o k a).

- Name of Mount M e r u.

Svarûpa: one's own form, one's true nature, one's character. The original form or constitutional position, of the soul, the eternal relationship of service unto K r i s h n a, the essential being that in each life is again reawakened to further perfection. Also: nitya-svarûpa: the eternal bond with K r i s h n a that each birth again has to be awakened and developed further. Goal of self-realization (see also s i d d h â n t a and n i t y a).

Svarûpa-siddhi: the perfect realization of the essential nature of the soul.

Svâyambhuva Manu: the original father of mankind (see M a n u).

- Vedic equivalent of Adam, the first person of mankind (see also S' a t a r û p â, 3.12: 54).

Svayamrûpa: K r i s h n a as an a v a t â r a who descended in 'His own form' (see also p r â k r i t i m  s v a m).

Svayamvara: a ceremony in which a princess chooses her husband. At the occasion K r i s h n a, S â m b a and A r j u n a kidnapped their wives: R u k m i n î (10.53), Mitravindâ (10.83: 12), L a k s h m a n â (10.83: 17; 10.68.1), and S u b a d r â (10.86).

Syamantaka: a special benevolent intensely radiating jewel in the possession of the Y a d u s in D v â r a k a used in the worship of S û r y a the sungod (for its story see 10: 56).

 

 

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