Sa | Sh


S'ālva: the demoniac member of the family that siding with S'is'upāla fought with Pradyumna, but because of his great power and magic was killed by Krishna. He was reported to go to war with a flying fortress called Saubha (see 10:76-77).

S'ānti: peace.

S'ās'vata: durability, quality of the soul (used in B.G. 1.42, 2.20).

S'āstra: (order, command precept, rule, instruction advise, counsel) the vedic studies, the revealed instructions, treatises, the manuals, the body of teaching to the sacred scriptures of the Vedas and Upanishad s (see also s'r u t i and V eda).

S'abda: sound (known as Krishna).

- A process of sacrificing sound in the controlled mind.

- Kind of pramāna, or a certain truth of evidence.

- An 'object' of the senses (see vishaya).

S'abda khe: Krishna's expression 'I am the sound in the sky, the ether' (see B.G. 7: 7).

- Also called ākās'a nāda in 12.6: 37 (see also diviyam s'rotam).

- Hearing the sounds of all living beings in the ether belongs to the secondary siddhi dūra s'ravana ('remote hearing') mentioned in 11.15: 19.

S'abda-brahman: the oral tradition, culture of precept and ritual giving access to Krishna -consciousness (s'ābhda-brahman: the V eda).

- The spiritual sound manifesting itself in the vital breath, the senses and the mind (11.21: 36, and 11.15: 19). Mystically in selfrealization and socially in the tradition of the personal conveyance of the knowledge.

- S'rīla Vis'vanātha Cakravartī Thhākura explains the divisions of s'abdha as follows.

- The prāna phase of Vedic sound, known as parā, is situated in the ādhāra-cakra;
- the mental phase, known as pas'yantī, is situated in the area of the navel, on the manipūraka-cakra;
- the intellectual phase, known as madhyamā, is situated in the heart area, in the anāhata-cakra.
- Finally, the manifest sensory phase of Vedic sound is called vaikharī (see also

S'akti: power, energy. In three types: higher, in between and lower energy:

1) Antaranga-sakti of Krishna and His expansion; His transcendental opulence.

2) Tatashta-sakti concerning the individual soul.

3) Bahiranga-sakti: the material energy.

On speaks of the higher and lower energy of respectively Vishnu - s'akti and Mahāmāyā-sakti (see also potency).

- The nine s'aktis or powers of the Lord: vimalā, purity; utkarshinī, exalted state; jńāna, knowledge; kriyā, activity; yogā, yogic powers; prahvī, modesty; satyā, truthfulness; īs'ānā,sovereighnty and anugrahā, grace (mentioned in 11.27: 25-26).

- Sakti as opposed to s'akti means adherence, attachment, devotion or addiction to.

S'akti-aves'a-avatāra: specially empowered incarnations,

- The s'aktyāves'a-avatāras are categorized into:

(1) Forms of divine absorption (bhagavad-āves'a), such as Kapila deva or Rishabha deva.
(2) Divinely empowered forms (s'aktyāves'a), of whom seven are foremost:
1 S'esha Nāga in the Vaikunthha world, empowered for the personal service of the Supreme Lord (sva-sevana-s'akti),
A nanta deva, empowered to bear all the planets within the universe (bhū-dhārana-S'akti),
Lord Brahmā , empowered with the energy to create the cosmic manifestation (srīshthi-s'akti),
Catuhsana, or the Kumāras, specifically empowered to distribute transcendental knowledge (jńāna-s'akti),
Nārada Muni, empowered to distribute devotional service (bhakti-s'akti),
Mahārāja Prīthu, specifically empowered to rule and maintain the living entities (pālana-s'akti) and
Parasurāma , specifically empowered to cut down rogues and demons (dushtha-damana-s'akti).'(Purport CC madhya 20,246, see also avatāra).

- Jesus Christ is also considered as'akti-aves'a avatāra.

S'ambhu: lord S'iva as the beneficent.

S'amī: a small tree called Acacia Suma, also called Aapta (see pic.), a type of mimosa with cream-colored flowers and very hard wood that is used for obtaining fire by friction. So Agni, or fire, is called s'amī-garbha, 'having the S'ami for its womb.' It is sometimes personified and worshipped as a goddess, s'amī-devi.

- Mentioned in the discussion of the symptoms of Kali-yuga as the tree that all other trees will degrade to (see 12.2: 12-16).

- The mantra 'samī-garbhād agnim mantha' 'from inside the s'amī is the fire generated' was used by Purūravā when he with s'amī-wood kindled fire meditating on Urvas'i mediteerde (zie 9.14: 44-45).

S'ankara: lord S'iva as the cause of prosperity; the mightiest of the eleven Rudra's, from whom the ten less powerful ones actually have originated.

- Causing prosperity, auspicious , beneficent.

- Name of a son of Kas'yapa and Danu (see also 6.6.: 27-31).

- Name of various authors and commentators, especially of S'ankarācārya.

- A particular Rāga or musical mode.

S'ankarācārya: vedāntic philosopher and translator of the G ītā (lived 788 -820 A.D., but to tradition 200 B.C.). He revived brahmanism preaching the oneness of the soul with B rahman; his leaning and sanctity were in such repute that he, also performing miracles, was held an incarnation of lord S' iva in his defending the impersonal aspect of Krishna 's teaching. His philosophy is often ranked as s'ankarism under the impersonalists and together with the voidism of the buddhists fought by the vaishnava's as a māyāvada threat to their personalist approach and defense of the classical order of the Indian society. S'ankara also himself contributed with his defense of vedic culture against the buddhists.

- His four principal disciples were Padma-pāda, Hastāmalaka, Sures'vara or Mandana, and Trothaka; another of his disciples, Ānanda-giri, wrote a history of his controversial exploits, called S'ankara-vijaya.

- Tradition makes him the founder of one of the principal Saiva sects, the Das'ana-nāmi-Dandins or 'Ten-named Mendicants'.

- He is the reputed author of a large number of original works, such as the Ātma-bodha, Ānanda-lahari, Jńāna-bodhinī, Mani-ratna-mālā; and commentaries on the Upanishad s the Brahma-mimāmsā or Vedānta-sūtra, the Bhagavad-gītā, and the Mahābhārata.

- Name of various teachers and authors.

S'aranya: Krishna as the Protector, the refuge, the Giver of Shelter (see 10.66: 37).

S'arva: he who kills with arrows, a name of lord S' iva (see 12.10: 35).

S'atarūpā: wife of Svāyambhuva Manu, see (3.12: 54), and the mother of D evah ū t i.

- Among the ladies is Krishna S'atarūpā (see also Mohini Mūrti, 11.16: 25).

- Vedic equivalent of Eva, the first created woman.

S'auca: purity (for self-awareness also spiritual). Part of niyama (see also Vidhi). Relates to the defense of respect for the celibate state, the original person, the children's soul (see also dāna).

S'aunaka Rishi: the chief of the sages who were present in Naimishāranya when Sūta Gosv ā m ī related the S'rīmad-Bhāgavatam.

S'auri: (from s'ūra, the mighty hero and s'aurya, the heroism, the prowess): scion of S'ūra (9.24: 27).

- Name of Krishna (see 10.32) as the son of the strong one, knowing His father Vasudeva.

S'ibi: a king famous for his protecting a pigeon who had taken shelter of him, for which he gave his own flesh to a hawk and thus attained heaven. Praised in 1.12: 20 en 10.72: 21.

- S'ibi, Vara, Krimi and Daksha were the four born from Us'īnara (9.23: 3-4).

S'ikhā: tuft of hair left over on the back of the shaven head of male devotees. Mark of vaishnava devotees living in the temple (see also guru-kula).

S'ikhsāshthaka: the eight verses written by Lord S'rī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, that glorify the chanting of the holy name of the Lord (see the bhajan).

S'ila: to live 'of the stones' to live on gathering ears of corn left in the field, to live vedically on the dole (zie also 6.7: 36, 7.15: 30, 11.17; 41 & 43).

S'ishya: onderricht worden, instructie ontvangen (see guru).

S'is'upala: ruler of Cedi, opponent of Krishna, His arch-enemy siding with Jarāsandha and Rukmī, ultimately beheaded by His cakra. Is one of the three demoniac incarnations of Jaya, the fallen gatekeeper of Vaikunthha. Krishna stole Rukminī, His first wife away before he could marry her (see 10.53).

S'is'umāra-cakra: ('dolphin-disc'): the celestial sky that is called Vāsudeva because one can directly perceive Krishna that way in the form of cosmic, galactic time or the milky way in the form of a dolphin (see picture).

- Also called the lotus of creation, the universe unfolded, from which Brahmā was born, sprouting from the navel of Vishnu.

- Name for the impersonal aspect of time of Krishna (see also kāla and cakra).

- There is also a mantra called s'is'umāra: 'Our obeisances unto this resting place of all the luminous worlds, unto the master of the demigods, the great Personality in the form of Time, upon whom we meditate' (see 5.23: 8).

S'iva: ('the auspicious') demigod, also known as S'ankara (causing prosperity), Bhava (of existence), S'ambhu (as the benficent), Mrida (the compassionate) or Rudra (the gruesome), Giris'a (the lord of the mountain), S'arva (he who kills with arrows) and Mahādeva (the great god). God of destruction, rules over the mode of ignorance. Meditates with Parvati on the mountain Kailāsa. Also called the yogi of yogi's. Originates from Brahmā with more qualities than his 'father' himself (see: 3.12: 7). Known with drum and Japa and through his cosmic dance at the end of creation.

- From Brahmā he received also the names of: Manyu, Manu, Mahinasa, Mahan, Ritadhvaja, Ugraretā, Bhava, Kāla, Vāmadeva and Dhritavrata. His eleven wives are Dhī, Dhriti, Rasalā, Umā, Niyut, Sarpi, Ilā, Ambikā, Irāvatī, Svadhā and Dīkshā are (3.12: 12-13).

- Pure devotee standing for for the destruction of the universe at the end of B rahmā 's life, his progenitor.

- False ego transforms into the mind, ten senses (the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, skin, hands, feet, voice, genitals and anus), and five physical elements (earth, water, fire, air and ether). Lord S'iva appears in a special linga form in each of these sixteen substances and can be worshiped in one of these forms or particular lingas to obtain the mystic opulences pertaining to it. Thus Lord S'iva's ākās'a-linga bestows the opulences of ether, his jyotir-linga bestows the opulences of fire, and so on (see pp 10.88: 4).

- 'S'iva, always united with his s'akti, is prayed to in his three manifest features of guna: the emotion (his sattva), the authority (his rajas) and the inertia (his tamas), and is thus the (embodiment of the) threefold of ego (10.88: 3).

S'ivānanda Sena: great grihastha-devotee of Lord S'rī  Caitanya Mahāprabhu.

S'loka: Sanskrit verse.

S'ravana: listening, to hear about the Lord; the first of the nine phases of devotional service (see further Bhāgavata dharma).

S'raddhā: belief; finding sympathy to engage in the sphere of devotional service; trust (see bhāva).

S'rāddha: ritual held for the sake of the deceased forefathers.

S'rāddhadeva: Satyavrata, the present Manu.

S'ravanam kīrtanam visnoh: the way of devotion of listening to the teachings and stories about Lord V ishnu and the glorification of His fame (see Bhāgavata Dharma).

S'rī: Lord.

- The most beautiful.

- A name of the Goddess of Fortune (zie ook Lakshmī).

S'rīdhara Svāmī: Vaisnava ācārya in de line van Vishnu Svāmī (see paramaparā).

- The writer of the oldest vaisnava commentary in existence on the S'rīmad Bhāgavatam en de Bhagavad-Gītā.

S'rīmad Bāgavatam (Bhagavata Purāna): The most beautiful about Him, the Fortunate one. The Krishna 'Bible', spoken by S'ukadeva Gosvāmi, the son of Vyāsadeva who wrote down the story of Krishna. In this book, a collection of classical stories, of about 18000 verses is each and everything described of bhakti-yoga as also the entire life of Lord Krishna and other avatāra's of Vishnu; it is a compendium of vedic wisdom that contains the creme of the vedic scriptures (go to the S'rīmad Bhāgavatam on the internet).

- The most important of the eighteen main purāna's also called the paramahamsa samhitā (see samhita).

- One of the six Vishnu -purāna's.

S'rīmate  Rādhārāni: adolescent girlfriend of Krishna, the most important gopi. worshiped as Krishna's eternal pleasure-potency. Lord Caitanya's most important identification in bhakti (see also Rādhārāni).

S'ringāra: one of the five direct or primary rasas or manifestations of love who are considered the main rasas: the amorous that in marriage (mādhurya) is set apart in svakhya, mature and parakhya, youthful.

S'ringi: the name of the son of rishi S'amīka who avenged his father, offended by Emperor Parikchit, with the curse that the emperor after seven days would die of a snakebite (see 1.18: 24-46).

S'rīvatsa: a mark on the breast of Lord Krishna consisting of three white hairs.

- A mark described by the Vaishnava-toshanī as being a curl of fine yellow hair on the upper portion of the right side of Lord Vishnu's chest. This mark is not for ordinary devotees. It is a special mark of Vishnu or Krishna.

S'rota: a way of offering sound by passive listening. Counterpart of s'abda: the offering of sound of the controlled mind; mantra and bhajan (see apaurusha and divyam s'rotam).

S'ruti: that what is heard; the spoken word; relates to the oral reception of vedic knowledge (see also smriti).

- Scriptures directly received from God Himself, the Vedas and Upanishads, unlike the scriptures counted as the smriti.

S'ūdra: lowborn, laborer, comrade, friend (see varna).

- Workers, artisans and artists, who deliver service unto the other three divisions of varna. 

S'ūdrānī: S'ūdra-woman.

S'uka: 'parrot' mentioned as a quality of devotees in strict following living and speaking, improvising and selfrealizing loyal to the s'astras (see anukarana and anusarana).

S'ukadeva Gosvāmi: the name of the first spiritual master, the ācārya, who explained the S'rimad Bhāgavatam, the story of Krishna to Maharāja Parikchit. the devotees of Krishna follow him all in that. He is the son of Vyāsasa deva who incited by Nārada  Muni wrote down the Bhāgavatam.

S'ukrācārya: ('the seminal teacher') a 'son of Bhrigu', a sage, the spiritual master of the a sura's, also called Kavi Bhārgava or Us'anā, an identity of Krishna; a scion of sage Mārkandeya (4.1: 45).

- King Yayāti married a daughter of S'ukrācārya called Devayānī from whom Yadu was born, the founder of the Yadu-dynasty Lord Krishna belonged to (9.18: 4).

- Donated a conch when Bali was reawakened after being defeated by Indra (8.15: 6).

- Cursed Bali for his disobedience so that he lost all his land to Lord Vāmana deva (see 8.20: 15).

- S'ukra later excused Bali for his imperfections (see 8.23: 15).

- He had two sons Shanda en Amarka who tried to educate Prahlāda, but failed to talk him out of his love for Vishnu (7.8: 2).

S'vetadvīpa: the white island in the milk-ocean of Lord Vishnu ruling there as the Supreme Lord Aniruddha, the Lord of the Mind (S.B. 8.4: 17-24).

S'vetāsvatara Upanishad: see Upanisads.

S'yāmasundara: name of Krishna as the 'beautiful dark one'

 - Beauty of the gray skin. Supreme form of Krishna as a youth in Vrindāvana, known with peacock-feather, flute and yellow dhoti.

(Senses: indriya, or go to senses under s.)

Shad-bhuja: the followers of Caitanya  Mahāprabhu also worship Him in His six-armed form of shad-bhuja. Two arms carry the waterpot and danda of the sannyāsī Caitanya  Mahāprabhu, two arms carry the flute of Lord Krishna, and two arms carry the bow and arrow of S'rī  Rāmacandra. This shad-bhuja form is the actual purport of verse 11.5: 34 (see there for the picture).

Shad-guna: the six qualities of a material existence: hunger, thirst, lamentation, old age, illusion and death (see next term).

Shad-ūrmi: the six forms of material misery, the six 'waves' of the ocean of matter: thirst, hunger, decay, death, grief and illusion. Also known as the four forms of misery: birth, disease, old age and death (see shath-guna).

Shad-varga: the six enmies with the six senses (the five plus the mind) of lust, anger, greed, madness, intoxication and envy (see 11.26: 24) also called six plunderers, shath dasyūn (in 7.8: 10).

Siddhaloka, the place of no return beyond the main three lokas, where the ones of perfection go to (see also vaikunthha).

- The world of the Blest (M.W.).

Siddhas: class of people, the perfected, the perfect, the self-realized, seers, fortunetellers saints, those of magical arts or endowed with supernatural power.

Siddhānta: the final conclusion of the Veda's that realization of one's svarūpa in relation of service unto Krishna gives the Krishna-consciousness of unity in diversity or the acknowledgment of the Person of God in the (material) world (see also nyāyika, vedānta and acinthya-bheda-abheda-tattva, and B.G. 9: 15).

- The fact of the creation not really being there, of His real oneness to the deluding temporal reality, of His sumultaneous being One and different, is discussed in chapter 11.28 and in 12.4: 23-24.

Siddhis: yogic perfections, mystical potencies, spiritual accomplishments that can be a hindrance in one's selfrealization. the are eight main siddhis:

1 The ability to identify with the smallest (animā),
2 the biggest (mahimā),
3 the heaviest (garimā)
4 and the lightest (laghimā)
5 and that one acting in one's own way (prākāmyam),
6 finding access everywhere (prāpti)
7 and setting in motion the forces (vas'itva)
8 may have the supremacy (īs'itva).

(see also kaibalya and bhāgavata  dharma and S.B. 5.6: 1 about their being limitations, or S.B.: 9.4: 24-25, 11: 15 and 11.28: 42-43, 11.14 14 for them being of no interest to the devotees).

- Mentioned is also the siddhi of answering to whatever desire that seeks His favor: the kāmāvasāyitā siddhi as number eight, fusing the garimā with the laghimā siddhi into one as being laghimā (see 11.15: 4-5).

- There are eight primary siddhis, as mentioned above, ten secondary siddhis and five siddhi's specific for concentration in yoga (see 11.15: 4-9):
The secondary ones are:

1 'In this body not to be plagued by hunger and thirst and such,
2 to hear things far away,
3 and to see things far away
4 to be transported with the speed of mind,
5 to assume any form at will,
6 to enter into the bodies of others,
7 to die at will,
8 to witness the sporting [of the heavenly girls] with the gods,
9 to be of perfect accomplishment to one's determination,
10- and to have one's commands fulfilled unimpeded are the ten secondary siddhis. 

The five siddhi's specific for concentrating in yoga are:

1 To know the past, the present and the future,
2 to be free from the dualities,
3 to know the minds of others,
4 to check the potency of fire, the sun, water, poison and so on and
5 not to be conquered by others'. 

Sītā: the wife of Rāma the central character to the battle in the Ramāyana: she was kidnapped by the demon Rāvana. Also called Janakī, as the daughter of Janaka. She was called Sita or 'furrow' because, so one explains, she was born from a furrow in the earth made by Janaka during the plowing that was done to prepare the earth for a sacrifice on his instigation to beget offspring, so she had the nickname Ayoni-ja, "not born from a womb". (sita, without the stripes means the clear light of the moon, pale, light, fettered joined with, while the candra of Rāmacandra refers to the moon itself).

Skanda: (anything which jumps or hops, grasshopper; spurting, effusing, effusion, spilling, shedding; perishing, destruction; quick-silver) the 'Attacker', the name of Kārttikeya, the son of S'iva or of Agni; he is called the god of war being the leader of S'iva's hosts against the enemies of the gods. He is also leader of the demons of illness that attack children and also the god of burglars and thieves;

- A king or prince;

- A clever or learned man;

- The body.

Smaranam: constant remembrance of Krishna (one of the nine methods of devotional service). (see also bhagavata-dharma)

Smārta's: brāhmana s, brahmins only interested in the outer appearance of the vedic rules and rites, in stead of cherishing Lord Krishna, as the goal of the Veda's.

Smriti: remembrance, the truth of the itihāsas and purānas (see also vibrahmah).

- Also called aihitiya

- Vedic knowledge is divided in srmiti and s'ruti: that what was directly heard from God - the knowledge of the Upanishads and the truth of the Vedas - and that what was remembered as the srmiti - the description by enlightened souls as in the stories of the purānas (see also Veda).

- Scriptures written by living beings under divine guidance, as much of importance as the s'ruti (see scriptures, -revealed).

- Scriptures further explaining on the original Vedas and Upanishads (see purānas).

Soma (-rasa): the fermented sour juice of a creeper which mixed with clarified butter by brahmins is used in vedic rituals.

- Name of the moongod (see also Candra).

Spirit: subtle element, mostly called 'the sixth sense', meaning that he admits, analyses, or blocks impulses entering through the senses; also known as 'the eleventh element', because its activity - thinking, feeling, willing - unites and is the supreme of the activity of the ten senses (see also Senses).

- Also used to indicate the thinking, the brain-activity, for a certain integrity of it.

- In S a nskrit related to the terms m ana s and b uddhi, of which the last term relates more to the concept of a higher intelligence.

Spiritual ego: the true identity of the living being; another designation of the word soul (see also svarūpa, svadharma, ātmā and ahamkāra).

- Spiritual identity, as confirmed through initiation (see s'ishya-guru).

Sthitaprajńa: stable in transcendence. Established in wisdom. Balance.

Sthita-dhī(ra)-muni: (sthita -firmly established; dhīra - unmovable; muni - sage): someone who is always absorbed in Krishna -consciousness and as a consequence is not bewildered by the material of nature or the operating modes (see guna's).

Strī: ('bearing children') woman (see yoshita).

Subhadrā: sister of Krishna, married with Arjuna. Is sung in the Jagannātha mantra (see bhajan).

Succession, disciplinary or spiritual (paramparā): succession of spiritual teachers who handed down unaltered the spiritual teachings of the Lord.

Sudharmā: the Lord His royal assembly hall in Dvārakā which for those who entered wards off the shath-ūrmi six plagues of a material life viz. hunger, thirst, lamentation, delusion, old age and death (see 10.50: 54 and 10:70: 17).

Sudars'ana: Name of a Vidyādhara by Krishna delivered from his snake body (see 10:34).

Sudars'ana cakra: ('His tangible presence with the cyclic, the order of time') Lord Vishnu's weapon in the form of a disc, referring to the vital power of tejas (see also cakra and s'is'umāra and kāla).

Sudyumna: see Ilā.

Sukha: joy, happiness, well-being. The opposite of dukha, unhappy. See also ānanda: eternal happiness, the happiness of the soul, and rāma: satisfaction.

Sukritina: piety in devotion of service to the Lord keeping to the rules of the Scripture.

Suparna's: 'the brothers of Garuda'; a group of heavenly beings, the reciters of verse.

Supersoul: see Paramātmā.

Sura: a god, divinity, deity, the sun but also a sage, a learned man, someone of the light, a believer, a god-fearing individual.

Surabhi: the cow of plenty, the cows in Krishnaloka. They provide an unlimited quantity of milk and are a holy symbol of vedic prosperity (see also kāmadhenu).

Sūra: the sun, a wise or learned man, teacher, enlightened soul, devotee, civilized person. As opposed to asura, evil spirit, demon, person of desire, unenlightened soul, an enlightened soul void of material desires. The term is derived from light, sun, the sungod. A reference to being of enlightened service to God or not.

Sūryaloka: the sundisc; the world of the order of the sun (see also loka).

Sūrya: the sungod, the personification of the order of the sun as known by nature (see S.B. 5.22).

- For each month of the year there is a different representative of the sungod ruling (see 12.11: 33-45).

Sūrya-namskar: salutation to the sungod, or the order of solar time-Sūrya, by a series of āsanas that together form a prostration before Krishna in the form of the Time and the light of the sun (see timequotes, 11: 11: 43-45, 11.27: 16-18; B.G. 7: 8 and the Gāyatrī).

Sūta: a son of a mixed marriage of a brahmin father and kshatriya mother (see also pratiloma).

Sūta Gosvāmī: son of R oma h a r shana, a sage who before the sages that gathered in the forest of Naimishāranya recounted the talks between Parīkchit and Sukadeva.

Sūtra: a deep vedic teaching comprised in a few words (see also s'loka).

- A thread, the primary of matter (pradhāna or mahat-tattva) as the thread of Him (see 11.9: 19 , 11: 15: 14, 11.22: 13, 11.24: 6 and B.G. 7: 7).

Svamī: another word for gosvāmī.

- Some of control over his mind and senses; title of someone in the renounced order (see sannyāsi, ācārya and gosvāmi).

Sva-dharma: one's own nature, one's original nature (see e.g. 12.6: 70).

- The acquired sense of duty in devotional service.

- The specific duty bent on selfrealization of a certain living being in accordance with the religious principles.

Sva-dhyaya: study of oneself for the sake of selfrealization and unmotivated charity or voluntary service (see niyama).

Svāmi: honorary title of spiritual teachers.

Svarloka: the heavenly planets or abodes of the demigods (see loka).

- Name of Mount Meru.

Svarūpa: one's own form, one's true nature, one's character. The original form or constitutional position, of the soul, the eternal relationship of service unto Krishna, the essential being that in each life is again reawakened to further perfection. Also: nitya-svarūpa: the eternal bond with Krishna that each birth again has to be awakened and developed further. Goal of self-realization (see also siddhānta and nitya).

Svarūpa-siddhi: the perfect realization of the essential nature of the soul.

Svāyambhuva Manu: the original father of mankind (see Manu).

- Vedic equivalent of Adam, the first person of mankind (see also S'atarūpā, 3.12: 54).

Svayamrūpa: Krishna as an avatāra who descended in 'His own form' (see also prākritim  svam).

Svayamvara: a ceremony in which a princess chooses her husband. At the occasion Krishna, Sāmba and Arjuna kidnapped their wives: Rukminī (10.53), Mitravindā (10.83: 12), Lakshmanā (10.83: 17; 10.68.1), and Subadrā (10.86).

Syamantaka: a special benevolent intensely radiating jewel in the possession of the Yadus in Dvāraka used in the worship of Sūrya the sungod (for its story see 10: 56).



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Sanskrit Dictionary


S'rīmad Bhāgavatam | Bhagavad Gītā | Nederlandse versie


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