Pāda: feet (see padma, lotusfeet and Prabhupāda).

- Chapter, part of a book.

- The foot of a mountain.

- A wheel.

- The measure of one foot.

- A quarter.

- Pada (without the ^): a step, space, point of view, position, home.

Pāda-vibhūti: the quarter of the complete world that is visible, the material world.

Pāńcarātrika: collection of laws and precepts concerning the performance of devotional service.

- To become a devotee of Krishna implies to accept an education: from a person contaminated by the symptoms of Kali-yuga (to be like a s'ūdra) is one promoted to the status of a deva.

Pāndavas: brothers of Arjuna, the five warrior-brothers and intimate friends of Lord Krishna, who were given rulership of the world by Him after their victory in the Battle of Kurukshetra.

- The five sons of king Pāndu and queen Kuntī: Arjuna, Sahadeva, Nakula, Bhīma and Yudhishthhira (see family tree).

Pāndu: a younger brother of Dhritarāshthra, who died young leaving behind his five sons, the Pāndavas, under the care of Dhritarāshthra.

Pāpa: sin, trouble.

Pārijāta: the coral tree, Erythrina Indica. It loses its leaves in June and then is covered with large crimson flowers. It is one of the trees of paradise produced at the churning of the ocean (see 8.7 & 8.8) and taken possession of by Indra from whom it was afterwards taken by Krishna. Also famous for its wood (mentioned in the description e.g. of Dvārakā S.B. 10.50: 50-53).

Pārtha-sārathi: Krishna, the charioteer of Arjuna (Pārtha). 

Pārvatī: Satī, Lord S'iva's consort, reborn as the daughter of the king of the Himalaya Mountains. She cursed king Citraketu to be reborn among the demons for insulting her (see 6.17).

Pāshandī (pāshanda): an atheist who thinks that God and the demigods are of the same level.

- Heretical, hypocritical impostor, an unreferring, non-bonafide, jealous philosopher or false teacher.

Padma: lotus, the flower of the lotus plant Nelumbium Speciosum that closes at night; often confused with the waterlilly Nymphaea Alba, related to it.

- Indication of spiritual purity.

- Pādma: of the lotus, everything relating to a lotus, also name of a certain Kalpa.

Paksha: period of fourteen to fifteen days (see pańca-das'a), to be precise half a lunar month; the first half from new moon to full moon was called pūrva or apūryamāna, later s'ukla or s'uddha; the other half apara or apakshīyamāna, later krishna or tāmisra; each fortnight consists of 15 tithis or lunar days called prathamā (see also 5.20: 30).

Pańca-bhāga: ('the five portions') the five claimants of sacrifice, the five household deities: the gods, the manes, the seers, the humans and the lower creatures (see e.g. 11.23: 9 and 7.14: 15, 7.15: 6 , 10.84: 39).

Pańca-das'a: period of fifteen days (ahāni).

Pāńcajanya: the conchshell of Lord Krishna.

Pańca-mahābhūta: The five material elements: earth, water, fire, air and sky (or ether).

Pańcarātra: supplement to the Vedas, describing the way of mūrti-worship for the devotees in the present era.

Pańcas'ikha: One who is liberated from the conceptions of annamaya, pra-ānamaya, manomaya, vijnānamaya and ānandamaya and who thus is perfectly aware of the subtle coverings (kos'as) of the soul is called pancas'ikha. According to the statements of the Mahābhārata (Sānti-parva, Chapters 218-219), an ācārya named Pańcas'ikha took birth in the family of Mahārāja J anaka, the ruler of Mithila. The Sānkhya philosophers accept Pańcas'ikhācārya as one of them.

Pańca-tattva: (pańca: five) the reality of Lord Caitanya as consisting of Himself, Lord Nityānanda, Lord Advaita, Lord Gadādhara and Lord Vāsādi. Are considered as Vishnu-tattva (see also pańca-tattva-mantra and catur vyūha).

Pandita: (Hindu: pundit), scholar, the man of learning, the learned one (see 11: 29: 12 and B.G. 2: 11, 4: 19, 5: 4, 5: 18 3: 25-26).

Pannaga: 'creeping low', low-life serpents, kings or foes; serpent killers or serpent eaters.

Parag-ātmā: the soul attached to sense gratification.

Parā-bhakti: intimate association with Krishna (highest form). Pure devotion. As opposed to viddha-bhakti: contaminated with material motives (see also vaidhi and rāganuga-bhakti).

Parābhava: defeat, the way the muslim Kazi had to accept defeat from Lord  Caitanya (C.C. Ādi 17. 168).

- The fact that māyā seizes everyone. Reason of the sound incarnation of the Lord as the Hare Krishna - mahāmantra.

Parakīya: Loving relationship apart from a marriage.

Param: higher, transcendent, exalted, pure, spiritual, transcendental, beyond.

Paramahamsa: (from parama: supreme, and hamsa: swan) the most elevated of all the self-realized, or someone who like a swan, a hamsa, who knows to extract milk from a mixture of milk and water, is capable of seeing the Lord only in all circumstances, in whom he is completely absorbed (see also sannyāsa).

Paramahamsa-samhitā: Another name for S'rīmad Bhāgavatam (Bhāgavata Purāna), the collection of stories about the Supreme Swanlike Lord.

Paramātmā: the Supersoul (Kshirodakas'āyī Vishnu). Transcendental nature of Krishna. The omnipresent local personal aspect of Krishna: 'God'.

- Second level of realization between Bhagavān and Brahman (see also 1.2: 11, vibhu-ātmā and sat-cit-ānan d a).

- Plenary expansion of Krishna (Bhagavān) who resides in the heart of every living being, in each atom of the material creation and even in between the atoms. He represents the everywhere local aspect of the Absolute Truth.

Param Brahman: the Supreme Brahman.

- The Personality of Godhead, S'rī Krishna.

Param-dhāma: His abode, the spiritual world.

Parames'vara: The Supersoul, the Absolute Master.

Param-guru: another name for the spiritual master. Teacher who teaches from and in favor of the transcendental. The teacher in transcendence (see also caittya).

Paramparā: ('one after the other') disciplic succession. for the Hare Krishnas: the Brahmā -Madhvā-Gaudīya -sampradāya (see also: sampradāya).

- Succession of spiritual teachers who, without changing anything of it, passed on the original teachings of the Lord generation after generation till today.

Paramparā-method: to transfer the knowledge of the spiritual with the critical readaptation to time and place for which one constantly is redirected towards Krishna, His devotees and the original scriptures (see: sampradāya).

Paramparā-guru: bona fide teacher of spiritual knowledge, - selfrealized soul who (see 5.13: 24, 12.6: 46 and B.G. 4: 1-3 and sampradāya).

1) Asateacher is part of a disciplic succession.

2) He is a Tattva dars'inah, a seer of truth (see also stitha prajna and ācārya and guru).

Parantapa: a name of Arjuna - he who chastises the enemies.

Parārdha: the half of the life of Brahmā, that in its entirety takes 311 trillion 40 billion years (see image).

Parā-prakriti: see prakriti.

Parāsara Muni: a great sage, father of Vyāsadeva.

Paras'urāma: an incarnation of the Lord who a long time ago appeared to fight the class of warriors that ran into decay (paras'u means chopper).

Para-tattva: aspect of the Absolute Truth, 'the supreme reality'.

Paravyoma: the spiritual sky, the spiritual abode, the spiritual goal. As a world on itself also called Vaikunthha by the Vaishnavas (see also moksha and Brahman).

Paria: untouchable, 'nonsocial element' with whom one avoids to associate (see candāla and harijan).

Parīkchit (Parīkshit): grandson of Arjuna. Son of Abhimanyu and U ttarā. Mahārāja, the emperor who as a child in the womb was protected by Krishna and later on was the continuation of the Yadu-dynasty. The first vedic sovereign who laid out the norms for Kali-yuga and was cursed by the son of a brāhmana to die in seven days because of not treating him properly. For him to attain perfection was next the S'rīmad Bhāgavatam explained by S'ukadeva Gos vāmī, the son of Vyāsadeva, the original author of the book about the Lord and His devotees.

- Also called Vishnudatta or Vishnurata, the one given by, or presented by Vishnu.

Passion (rajo-guna - rajas): one of the three modes of material nature. Under her influence one falls to greed, serious attachment to the world, uncontrollable desires, striving beyond necessity and - despite of the painstaking and enduring efforts to improve one's material position - chronic discontent. Passion is ruled by Brahmā.

Pas'u: animal nature: The snake of time in four necessities, the four animal propensities; āhāra, nidrā, bhaya and maithuna; eating, sleeping, fearing or defending and mating (see 7.9: 5)

- Denotes in tantra-yoga, the yoga of the transformation of sexual energy, in which one limits oneself to one partner.

Pas'u-pati: Lord S'iva as the lord of the animals. Worshiped by the gopas of Vr aja in chapter 34 of Canto 10.

Patańjali: a great authority of the ashthānga-yoga system and author of the yoga-sūtra (see also yoga).

- Incarnation of Ananta S'esha or Sankarshana (see catur-vyūha).

Paundraka: a king who posing as Krishna was killed by Him (see 10.66).

Pavarga: struggle for one's existence, accompanied by defeat, exhaustion, imprisonment, fear and death.

Pavitra: pure.

Payo-vrata: (only drinking-fast, fast on milk only) a form of fasting on a vow of only drinking called sarva-yajńa (the one covering all sacrifices) and is thus, with the charity pleasing the Lord, understood as the very essence of all austerities, so says Kas'yapa to his wife Aditi doing the fast to give birth to Lord Vāmana (see 8: 17).

Phala-s'ruti: 'the fruit of listening', the promise of success given to one who hears it, usually at the end of a chapter as it regularly occurs in the Bhāgavatam at the end of discussing a subject of devotion.

Phālguna; name of Arjuna as the one born in the month, at the moment, during which the full moon stands in the Nakshatra, the ascendant, (Pūrvā-)Phalgunī (February-March). Thus he was was only eight days older than Krishna who was born with Rohini rising.

Phalgu-vairāgya: the immature form of renunciation rejecting material things, modern means, the material world, on itself conducive to devotional service as opposed to yukta-vairāgya, engaging everything in the service of Lord Krishna.

Pingalā: prostitute mentioned in a story of Krishna for Uddhava as one of the twenty-four masters of the avadhūta. From her one learns not to desire and thus reach Krishna (see 11.8: 22-44).

Pipal (pippala) tree (Ficus religiosa) or as'vattha, a native tree of India called the holy fig tree, held sacred by the Buddhists, who believe that Gautama Buddha received enlightenment under a Bo or Bodhi tree at Bodh Gaya. The Bo tree attains great size and age; the leaves, which hang from long, flexible petioles, rustle in the slightest breeze. Pipal is also spelled peepul or pipul. All parts of the Pipal tree, including roots, bark, leaf and fruit, are useful. The botanical classification of the Bo tree is:

Division: Magnoliophyta; class: Magnoliopsida, order:  Urticales; Family:  Moraceae.

Description of the Plant: Large tree. Flower color red. Flowers in February. Fruits in May / June. Widely found in uplands and plain area.

Plant Parts Used: Root / Bark / Leaf / Fruit.

- Mentioned as being Him in the Gītā (at 10: 26) and in the Bhāgavatam as the tree at Prabhāsa under which Krishna sat when He was hit by Jarā and left for Vaikuntha (see 11.30: 27).

Pitriloka: the planets, the world where the deceased ancestors live.

Pis'ācas: yellow meat-eating devils, or urchins as also: a fiend, an ogre, a demon, an imp, a malevolent or devilish being and a she-devil.

Pitās: deceased ancestors who were promoted to an honorable position on one of the higher planets.

Planets, Hellish -: planets, spheres or worlds of living belonging to the lower. They are of the dark and demoniac, and those who because of their sinful ways come to live there, have there a life of unbearable suffering (see also Loka).

Planets, Heavenly -: planets, spheres or worlds of living belonging to the higher. The beings living there are situated on a higher level, live much longer and have much more extensive - better regulated - sensual pleasures than one has on other planets of the universe (see also Loka).


- The Supreme Lord His (feminine) internal potencies of fortune (S'rī), development (Pushthi or also strength), speech (Gīr or knowledge), beauty (Kānti), renown (Kīrti), contentment (Tushthi or renunciation - these first ones are His six opulences, see also bhaga); comfort (Ilā, bhu-s'akti, the earth-element or sandhinī) and power (Ūrjā, expanding as Tulasī); His potencies of knowing and ignorance (vidyā and avidyā, leading to liberation and bondage); His internal pleasure potency (s'akti or hlādinī), his marginal potency (ca or jiva-s'akti) and His creative potency (Māyā) (see 10.39: 53-55).

- Liberation means that the living entity should transfer himself to the spiritual potency of the Lord, which can be divided into three categories:

- sandhinī, the potency of eternal existence;
- samvit, the potency of omniscience;
- and hlādinī, the potency of bliss.

Krishna 's potency for existence, His potency for knowledge and His potency for pleasure - are distinct from yogamāyā. Each is an individual potency. This is another formulation of the divine in terms of sat-cit-ānanda; Krishna as being eternity, consciousness and bliss (see also s'akti).

- The nine potencies, elements, energies of material nature (prakriti), the living entity (purusha), cosmic intelligence (mahat-tattva), the false ego (ahankāra) and the five objects of the senses (the tanmātrās) of the sound, what touches, the form, the taste and the aroma (see also the nine s'aktis, and 11.19: 14 and 11.22).

Prabhāsa: ('splendor') place from where Krishna left this earth.

Prabhu: master, honorary title for respected bhaktas.

Prabhupāda: literally master of the feet, honorary title for a spiritual master.

- Swami Prabhuhpāda: the vaishnava-ācārya who brought the bhakti yoga of Lord Krishna-Caitanya to the west and translated the verses of Gītā and the Bhāgavatam (see also pāda).

- Also Vishnupāda: the refuge of the shelter that is Vishnu.

Prabodhānanda Sarasvatī: great vaishnava-poet and devotee of Lord S'rī Caitanya  Mahāprabhu.

Prācīnabarhi: a king who, entangled in fruitive activities, received instructions on the essence of the soul from Nārada Muni. This instruction culminates in the story of life its tribulations and the reality of reincarnation with the character of Purańjana who lived in the city of nine gates as an analogy to the soul inhabiting the body (see 4.24-29). He was the father of the Pracetās.

Pracetās: the sons of king Prācīnabarhi. They withdrew for austerities and received instruction from Lord S'iva (4.24) and Nārada (4.32). Later they married with Mārishā who gave birth to Daksha (4.30, 31 & 32) (see also Mahārishi).

Pradhāna: the primary nature, the primeval ether, the primary or unevolved matter or nature; the undifferentiated in possession of the differentiated nature, consisting of the cause and effect of the combination of the three modes (see also sūtra, elements, S.B.: 3.26:10, 3.29: 36 , 10.85: 3, 11.22: 33, and 12.4: 20).

Pradyumna: 'the pre-eminently mighty one', one of the four original expansions of Lord Krishna in the spiritual world ruling the intelligence reported to be the god of love incarnate. (see also Sankarshana - of the ego, Aniruddha - of the mind and Vāsudeva - of the consciousness, see also Vyūhas, S.B. 4.24:35-37 and Pańca-tattva).

- Name of Cupid the God of Love incarnated as a son of Krishna and His first wife Rukminī.

- Pradyumna, the son of Krishna fought against S'alva, a member of the family siding with S'is'upāla. He couldn't defeat the great magician and thus was it Krishna in person who put S'alva down (see 10.76).

Prahasan: smiling, characteristic of Krishna.

Prahlāda: A great devotee of the Lord and son of Hiranyakas'ipu, a demoniac ruler who by means of severe penance enforced not to be destroyed by any weapon, but ultimately was torn apart by the nails of Nrisimha-deva. Prahlāda is of special significance to the devotees, the bhaktas, because by remembering Krishna he ultimately found the grace of liberation from the misery of his father (see also Bhāgavata Dharma, Nrisimhadev and the bhajan about him, see 7.5 and further).

Prajāpati: the founding father, e.g. Daksha and K ardama (see also Manu).

- Progenitor of the living beings;

- Lord Brahmā.

Prajna: scholarship, knowledge of the divine, consciousness of the true knowledge of God.

Prakās'a-vigraha: form of Krishna, that for a few characteristics is identical to His original form.

Prākrita: third rank devotion on a material level: one has no clear idea yet of Krishna and His devotees. Applies to Christians and Muslims.

Prakriti: the material nature (apāra-) with the living beings (see 11.2: 47 and parā prakriti).

Prākritimsvam: Krishna's term for His own transcendental form.

Pralamba: a black demon sent by Kamsa in order to destroy Krishna that tried to run off with Balarāma on His back but was slain by Him (10.18).

Pralaya: annihilation. The progress of kāla is described as being of a continuous (nitya), occasional (naimittika), natural (elemental or prākritika) and final (ātyantika) type of annihilation or pralaya (12.4: 38).

- A second division of annihilation (prarisankrama) is given in 3.10: 14: the three kinds of annihilation of the plants, who end with the universe, that of the lower animals who go extinct and that of the higher beings that end in the Lord.

Pramāda: illusions by inattention, a wrong conception of reality (see also bhrama).

Pramāna: (measure, scale, standard, correct notion, 0neness, unity) a means of acquiring pramā or certain knowledge; evidence. There are according 11.19: 17, four types of certain knowledge or proof: s'ruti, smriti (also called aitihaya or traditional knowledge), pratyaksha (direct experience) and anumāna (logical inference). In bhakti is also held the division of guru, the teacher, s'astra, the scriptures, and sādhu the co-believer, as the sources of knowledge related to this.

- The four pramānas according the M.W.-dictionary are: perception by the senses, inference, comparison, and verbal authority.

- Truth by sense-perception.

- Six in the vedānta , viz. pratyaksha, perception by the senses; anumāna, inference; upamāna, analogy or comparison; s'abda or āpta-vacana, verbal authority, revelation; anupalabdhi or abhāva-pratyaksha, non-perception or negative proof; arthāpatti, inference from circumstances;

- The nyāya admits only four, excluding the last two.

- The sānkhya admits only three, pratyaksha, anumāna and s'abda.

Pramathas: ('thought out, wise, excogitate') the different mystic attendants of lord S'iva. Array with him for battle as with the battle against Bāna in 10.63.6 (and in 10.66.31 and 10.74.52).

Pramlocā: the heavenly girl sent by Indra to seduce sage Kandu and of whom the daughter Mārisā was born who became the wife of the Pracetās.

Prāna: the life breath, the vital breath.

- Cosmic energy potently present in oxygen; life generating principle pervading the entire universe (see also vāyu).

Pranasyati: because of a loss of intelligence yielding to temptations.

Pranava omkāra: see o m.

Pranava: primal sound of God, identity of Krishna asatranscendental sound vibration: AUM (see also omkāra) (see also 11.14: 34, 11.21: 36-40).

- According to S'rīla  S'rīdhara  Svāmī, the pranava, or omkāra, has five parts - A, U, M, the nasal focus (bindu) and the reverberation (nāda). Liberated souls meditate upon the Lord at the end of that reverberation (pp 11.27: 23).

Prānāyāma: breathcontrol by the vayus or the settling of the movement of the airs so that well-being is the result (see vāyu & pūraka- inhaling, recaka - exhaling, kumbhaka, retaining).

- Fourth phase of ashthānga-yoga, consisting of breath control discussed by Krishna in S.B. 11.14: 32 and B.G. 4.29).

Prasāda(m): (grace, favor) food offered to Krishna prepared from milk, cereal, beans, vegetables and fruits. Is considered wholesome and blessing. By sacrificing to Krishna gets the food the quality of Krishna.

- Each proof of mercy of the Lord.

Pratiloma: someone born from the mixed marriage between a father from a lower and a mother from a higher caste. Mentioned in: 10.78: 24.

- Something contrary to the natural course or order, reverse, inverted; adverse, hostile, disagreeable, unpleasant.

Pratyag-ātmā: the liberated soul freed from material bondage.

Pratyāhāra: withdrawing from activity of the senses; one of the eight elements of ashthānga-yoga that follows the breathcontrol of pranayāma; the conscious refraining from all unnecessary sense-activity, the turning inward of one's vision.

Pravritti-mārga: the way of sensual pleasure according the vedic directions.

- Devotional service to the Lord is called nivritti- dharma, the more sense-oriėnted worship of gods and forefathers with ceremonies of sacrifice for the purpose of material results is then called pravritti- dharma (see also S.B.: 3-32: 2, 4.4: 20, 7.15: 47, 11.10: 4 and dharma).

Prema: real, spontaneous, devotional love for/of God (Krishna), the result of s'raddhā and bhāva.

Pretas: ghosts, hobgoblins, evil attendants of lord S'iva.

Pris'nigarbha: name of the Lord as the one born from the ancestor Pris'ni, or Vāmanadeva (see 6.18: 1-9).

Prithā: Arjuna's mother, wife of Pāndu, see Kuntī.

Prithu Mahārāja: an empowered incarnation of Lord Krishna who demonstrated how to be an ideal king (see 4.15-23).

Priyavrata: From the father of mankind called Svāyambhuva  Manu and his wife S'atarūpā their sexual life according the rules of religion, was there the increase of the generations. He begot from S'atarūpā five children with Priyavrata and Uttānapāda as their sons and Ākūti (married to the sage Ruci), Deva hūti (who married with Kardama) and Prasūti (who married to Daksha) as their daughters. The two sons were of the greatest and their sons and grandsons spread all over the world. Dhruva was a grandson of Uttānapāda (see 3.12:56, 4.1 4.8:7, 4.31: 26). Though reluctant to do his duty, was Priyavrata convinced by Brahmā himself. Thus came from him the many generations. He perfectly thought to satisfy the Supreme Lord by on a chariot circumambulating the Mountain of Enlightenment of the sungod. With the rims of his wheels he is reported to have created the seven places of refuge, the islands of bhū-mandala (see 5.1 for the story). Another daughter named Ūrjasvatī he gave away as the wife of to the great sage Usanā (Sukrācārya).

Pulaha: one of the ten mahārishi s born from Brahmā. Received from Kardama his daughter Gatī in marriage (3.24: 22).

- Gatī, the wife of Pulaha gave birth to three chaste sons (Karmasrestha, Varīyān and Sahisnu) who knew all about karma and were also very respectable and tolerant (4.1: 38).

- His as'rāma, also called Hari-kshetra, is situated in Hardwar and belongs to the holiest places (5.7: 8) that time and again should be paid a visit by the one who desires the auspiciousness as it is there that of the persons the religious activities performed are a thousand times more effective (see 7.14: 30-33).

Pulastya: one of the ten mahārishi s born from Brahmā. Received from K ardama his daughter Havirbhū in marriage (3.24: 22).

- Pulastya begot in his wife Havirbhū, Āgastya, who in his next birth would be Dahrāgni (the one of the digestive fire) and Visrava the great one of austerity (4.1: 36).

- The one sage who told Parāsara Muni the Bhāgavatam that was later told to the sage Maitreya who instucted Vidura (see 3.8: 9).

- B harata withdrew again in Pulastya's and Pulaha's ās'rama as the deer he changed into. (see 5.8: 30).

Pundit (pandita): (scholar, teacher, philospher, brahmin sage, learned man) officiator, priest in hindu ceremonies (see also Mimāmsā and darshana).

- A Hindu brahmin who has memorized a substantial portion of the Vedas, along with the corresponding rhythms and melodies for chanting or singing them. Hindus hire them to chant Vedic verses at yajńas and other events, both public and private.

- A term of great respect given to Indian classical musicians (usually Hindu) acknowledged to be masters.

Purāna: narration; eighteen very old books about the history of the planet and other worlds (there are also eighteen upa-purāna s, smaller ones).

- The stories; eighteen very old books or bibles from big, 81.000 verses to small, 9.000 verses, six about Vishnu, six about S'iva and six about Brahmā, containing (vedic) histories about the relation of mankind with the different forms of God and their worlds. The Vishnu-purāna the S'rīmad Bhāgavatam, also called the Bhāgavata Purāna and Paramahamsa Samhitā, is considered the most important (see also 12.7: 23-24, 12.13: 4-9 itihāsa, Veda).

Creation, secondary creation, de dynasties of the kings, their activities and the reigns of the Manu s are the five characteristics of each Purāna (Amarkhasa).

The six Vishnu purānas:

'1. S'rīmad Bhāgavata purāna (18.000 verses) has because of its beautiful presentation style, a high rank in Sanskrit literature. It contains tales related to various incarnations of Lord Vishnu and mainly deals with the life and plays of Lord Krishna.

2. Vishnu purāna (23.000 verses) Also contains five parts. First part narrates about the creation of the universe, pralaya and the churning of the ocean. Second part contains geographical description of earth divided into seven islands. Third part describes about the origin of Bhuddhism. Fourth part contains a description about the populating of the earth from the beginning. Fifth part is entirely devoted to the life and plays of Lord Krishna (Stories of various devotees; a description of varnās'rama; the six angas of the Veda; a description of the age of Kali; description of Sveta Varāha Kalpa, Vishnu dharmotara. Varāha Kalpa, Vishnu dharmotara).

3. Nāradiya purāna (25.000 verses) is a vaishnava Purāna presented in a style of dialogue between Nārada and Sanat-kumāra. This Purāna contains detailed description of major places of pilgrimage (a synopsis of everything; it describes Jagannatha Puri, Dvārakā, Badrinatha, etc. ).

4. Padma purāna (55.000 verses) Contains five parts. In the first part, sage P ulastya explains the essence of religion to Bhīshma. The second part contains a description of the earth. Third part contains tales of creation as well as geographical description of India. Fourth part describes the life of Lord Rāma. In the fifth part, essential knowledge of religion has been discussed in dialogue style between Lord S'iva and Pārvatī (Contains the glory of S'rīmad-Bhāgavatam; the stories of Rāma, Jagannatha, Matsya, Ekādas'ī, Bhrigu, etc.).

5. Varāha purāna (24.000 verses) contains the tale of rescue of the earth by the avatār Varāha (boar incarnation) of Lord Vishnu (Describes different vratas; Lord Vishnu 's glories).

6. Garuda purāna (19.000 verses) is about Lord Vishnu preaching his vehicle, Garuda about the subtleties of religion and life. Besides, trivial tales related to religion and moral, this Purāna also contains description of diamond like jewels and the ways to identify best kind of jewels. (Subject of Bhagavad-gītā; reincarnation; vishnu-sahaasra-nama; description of Tarsya Kalpa.)'

The six Brahmā purānas are:

'1. Vāmana purāna (10.000 verses) is the purāna is entirely devoted to Vāmana  avatāra (incarnation) of Lord Vishnu narrated in dialogue style between the sage Pulastya and the devoted Nārada .

2. Mārakandeya purāna (9.000 verses) begins with a question put forth by sage Jaimini. In reply to this question, sage Mārkandeya narrates what constitutes the subject matter of this Purāna (Stories of Rāma and Krishna).

3. Brahmā purāna (10.000 verses) Contains two parts - Purva Bhāga and Uttar Bhāga. Purva Bhāga contains tales of creation, description of Lord Rāma and Lord Krishna. Uttar Bhāga contains a detailed description of Purushottama Tīrtha prominent among all the holy places.

4. Brahma vaivarta purāna (18.000 verses) This purāna contains four parts. First part contains the tale of creation. Second part contains tales related to goddesses. Third part contains tales related to Lord Ganesha. In the fourth part, tales related to the life and plays of Lord Krishna have been given. (Contains the glories and pastimes of Rādhā and Krishna).

5. Brahmānda purāna (12.000 verses) It is the last of the eighteen purānas. Presently it is available in different pieces and no connection seems to exist between them. Once, it had contained Aadhyatma Ramāyana. (Describes the vedanga's and the Adi Kalpa).

6. Bhavishya purāna (14.500 verses): This purāna contains five parvas (parts). The first part contains description of creation. Second, third and fourth parts contain detailed description of lord S'iva, Lord Vishnu and Sūrya respectively. In the fifth part, description of heaven has been given (Contains the glories of devotional service; prediction of Lord Caitanya). '

The six S'iva purānas are:

'1. Skanda purāna (81.100 verses) It is the largest purāna. It is mainly devoted to Kārtikeya (Skanda) the son of lord S'iva and Pārvatī. Besides, it contains a lot of tales related to lord S'iva and many holy places of pilgrimage devoted prominently to S'iva.

2. S'iva mahapurāna (24.000 verses) It is also a huge compilation of tales devoted primarily to the life and plays of lord S'iva. It is divided into seven samhitā s, which together contain more than twenty-four thousand stanzas.

3. Kūrma purāna (17.000 verses) Lord Himself has narrated this Purāna in Kūrma (tortoise) incarnation to Nārada. Nārada narrated it to Sutaji who in his term narrated it to an assembly of great sages (Contains the conversation between Krishna and the Sun-god (mentioned in Bhagavad-gītā); Dhanvantari ; describes the Lakshmī Kalpa ).

4. Matsya purāna (14.000 verses) is about the Lord's fish incarnation and the preservation of Manu and the seeds of all life during the destruction (pralaya) by the Matsya avatāra (Temple construction; describes Vāmana and Varāha Kalpa s).

5. Linga purāna (11.000 verses): Preaching about the glory of lord S'iva en Linga worship is the main objective of this purāna. In two parts, this purāna contains tales related to the creation of the universe, origin of the linga, of the Veda's, lord Brahmā, Lord Vishnu etc. from this linga (Contains the glory of Lord Nrisimhadeva; Janārdhana; the story of Ambarīsha Mahārāja; the glories of Gāyatrī).

6. Agni purāna (15.400 verses) is devoted to Agni. It is presented in preaching style by Agni to sage Vasishthha. It contains the description of various incarnations of God, Lord Rāma and Krishna as well as of the earth and stars (Contains the description of Salagrama; describes the Isana Kalpa).'

(see also the site urday.com and alt.hindu).

- There are ten characteristics of a purāna:

- The creation (of this universe, sarga),
- the subsequent creation (of different worlds and beings, visarga),
- the maintenance (the sustenance, the vritti or sthāna)
- and protection (the rakshā or poshana of the living beings),
- the reigns (the
manvantara s of the various Manu s),
- the dynasties (vams'as),
- the narrations about them (vams'a-anucaritam),
- the annihilation (of different kinds,
pralaya or samsthā),
- the motivation (of individuality or hetu)
- and the supreme shelter (of the Fortunate One or apās'raya), (see
2.10: 1 and 12.7: 9-10).

- S'rīla Jīva Gosvāmī has explained to this that the ten principal topics of S'rīmad-Bhāgavatam are found within each of the twelve cantos. One should not try to assign each of the ten topics to a particular canto. Nor should the S'rīmad-Bhāgavatam be artificially interpreted to show that it deals with the topics successively. The simple fact is that all aspects of knowledge important to human beings, summarized in the ten categories mentioned above, are described with various degrees of emphasis and analysis throughout the S'rīmad-Bhāgavatam (pp. 12.7: 9-10).

Purānah: the oldest; a quality of the soul.

Purańjana: a king in an allegory about the j īva living in the city with nine gates or the body (see 4.25 and further). A story told by Nārada to king Prācīnaba rhi.

Pure Devotee: someone who, free from all attachment to the fruits of his actions (karma) and to speculative thought (jńāna), surrenders with body and soul to the service of the Lord and thus achieves the perfection of devotion unto God and the acme of spiritual realization.  

Purūravā: a king born from the, to a woman, cursed Sudyumna and the powerful Budha. He later married the heavenly Urvas'ī that left him in denial of his attachment (see 9.14).

- Founder of the dynasty that with the Yadus and the Kurus (descendants of Pūru) ran into conflict with themselves in the great war of Kurukshetra.

Purusha: the male principle; the Absolute Truth in its original form (mahāpurusha). The lord as the purusha assumed the original form of the material world with her sixteen principles of material action (S.B. 1.3:1, see also virath-rūpa)

- The original person, the incorporeal godhead.

- (as cause and effect), the mind, de elements, false ego, the gunas, the senses, the Universal form or appearance (see virath-rūpa) with the moving and nonmoving living entities and the complete independence all together.

- The living being, the person as the enjoyer.

- Krishna as the Supreme Enjoyer.

- Vishnu as the first avatāra (purusha-avatāra, see Vishnu).

- Separated from the material nature under the influence of Time (see 11.24: 3).

Purushārthas: goals of a material life. In four: kāma, artha, dharma, moksha; by (resp.) regulation of lust, profit and religious duty one finds liberation. Often mentioned in three not mentioning the moksha.

Purusha-avatāras: the first expansions of Krishna as the original person, three in number, involved in the creation, maintenance and dissolution of the material universe. (see also avatāra and S.B. 2.7). These are the primary expansions of Lord Vishnu:

- Kāranodakas'āyī Vishnu (Māhā-Vishnu) lies within the Causal Ocean and breathes our innumerable universes;

- Garbhodakas'āyī Vishnu enters each universe and creates diversity;

- Kshīrodakas'āyī Vishnu (the Supersoul) enters into the heart of every created being and into every atom.

Pūjā: honour, worship, respect, reverence, veneration, homage to superiors or adoration of the gods. With ārati and kīrtan.

- The worship of the deity or the representative of God at home or in the temple (see arcana and bhāgavata dharma).

Pūraka: the phase inhaling the breath (see prānāyāma).

Pūrnam (om-): the fullness of Krishna: in qualities in six: riches, beauty, fame, strength, knowledge and renunciation (see also bhaga and potencies).

- To the separate division called the Complete Whole: the unity of Him, the Lord; the soul, the matter, the activity and the Time (resp. Īs'vara, jīva, prakriti, karma en kāla).

Pūru: the son of king Yayāti who took the burden of old age from his father so that he could stay young, and so became the founder of the dynasty named after him. Because Krishna belonged to the dynasty of his brother Yadu, who refused his fathers request, could he not ascend the throne after Ugrasena (see 9:18). This was so because the descendants of Pūru, to which also the Pāndavas belonged, contested the rule of the Yadus because of Yayāti's curse with Jarāsandha and S'is'upāla fanatic after the death of Kamsa and thus was Krishna forced into retreat in Dvārakā (see e.g. 10.68: 13-22), which together with the exile of the Pāndavas ultimately led to the great war of Kurukshetra and the downfall of the entire candra-vams'a, the lunar dynasty of Purūravā that had ruled India after Rāmacandra (see 9: 14 en 9:18).

Pūrvataram: (previous, anterior, ancient, prior, before, first) term relating to liberated souls of yore with whom one must be in touch to have proof of the soul (see also paramparā).

Pūrvacitti: ('foreboding, first notion or conception') the name of the apsara that the Lord is confessed to (see 11.16: 33).

Pūtanā: witch in the form of a beautiful woman sent by Kamsa to kill baby Krishna, but who instead was killed by Krishna and thus found liberation (see S.B. 10.6).


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