Bādarāyana: name of the father of S'ukadeva, Vyāsa deva to his meditating in Badarikās'rama.

Bāhuka: Churned from the legs of king Vena was Bāhuka (the dwarf) born. He had copperlike hair and was called 'Just sit down here' or Nishāda. From him the Naishādas are known living in the hills and forests, feared because, being born from Vena they had taken the sins upon them of Vena (see SB 4.14: 43-46).

Bāna: 'arrow' an asura protected by lord S'iva who had a thousand arms and also was called Bānāsura. His daughter Ūshā attracted Aniruddha, Krishna's grandson. With Aniruddha being captured then ensued a terrible battle between Krishna and S'iva and his followers (see 10.62-63).

Badarikās'rama: the place of refuge in the Himalayas to where many retreat at the end of their life to meditate until death.

- Mentioned in 3.4: 4, 5.4: 5, 5.12: 16, 6.11: 6, 7.11: 6, 7.14: 30-33, 9.3: 36, 10.52: 4, 11.4: 7 and 11.29: 41-44

- Badarikā means the fruit or berry of the jujube. It is the name of one of the sources of the Ganges and the neighboring hermitage of Nara-Nārāyana.

- As an illustrious place of pilgrimage also called Vis'ālā.

Balarāma: ('strength of joy'), Krishna's first Plenary portion operating as His elder brother. Also named Baladeva and Rāma. He is the protector and teacher of the devotees. Is also considered as Bhagavān (see also sankarshana).

Bali Mahārāja: (bali means: oblation), a king who became a great devotee by surrendering everything to Lord Vāmanadeva, the Lord who appeared as a dwarf-brahmin, (see 8.19).

Banyan: (ficus benghalensis) asian sacred tree also called barh with areal roots and many trunks spreading wide. Starts its life as a parasite (see also pippala and as'vattha).

Barhishat: see Prācīnabarhi.

Barhismān: see Prācīnabarhi.

Battle of Kurukshetra (named so after the holy place where the battle occurred): a struggle five thousand years ago of the sons of Pāndu denying the sons of Dhritarāshthra their rule over the earth. After only eighteen days of fighting, in which about 3.94 million warriors were killed, achieved the sons of Pāndu the victory.

Being, living (bhūta): incarnated soul, covered with a physical frame that is one of the 8.400.000 forms of beings that, vedically seen, populate the universe (900.000 aquatics, 2.000.000 plants, 1.100.000 insects and reptiles, 1.000.000 birds, 3.000.000 mammals en 400.000 types of human beings) (see ātmā, jīva).

Betel: tasty nut that chewed colors the saliva red. An activity cherished by Krishna and popular in India.

Betelnut is a very hard nut that grows at a 20 meters high palm tree. This tree is found in precipitous areas in Asia, East-Africa and Polynesia. The way one in the West drinks coffee, one uses it in Asia. For millions of asians is chewing bethel one of the most important pastimes.

Effective ingredients: 0,3 to 0,6% alkaloids mainly arecoline, 14 to 18% fat oils, 15 to 25% tannin (arekared).

Effect: Stimulating agent, stimulates the central nervous system, speeds up the breathing and improves one's mood. It gives an euphoric and erotic feeling. The chewing of bethel makes for a merry relaxation and a pleasant feeling in the mouth that by the temples goes to the brain.

Use: One teaspoon of powdered bethel can be mixed with coffee or be taken with water, but the best effect is achieved by adding some chalk and chew it for some time. To flavor it one can eat a piece of lemon to it or other spices. De effective agents are through the mouth taken into the bloodstream, and the saliva and the chewed remnants can be spit out. In combination with other herbs like Kava Kava and Yogi thea is the effect increased.

Bhāgavata: indication for all and everything that is in service with the Lord, including the Lord Himself (see Bhagavān).

- The personalistic school, adhered by those believing in God as being the Supreme Personality and who Him therefore, contrary what the mayavadis do, serve in devotion.

- The book bhāgavata: the S'rīmad-Bhāgavatam.

- The person bhāgavata, or the devotee who sets his whole life to the book the bhāgavata.

- Bhāgavata the Lord, especially Krishna-Caitanya as the Lord in the form of His own devotee.

Bhāgavata-dharma: devotional service in nine divisions: s'ravanam (listening), kīrtanam (singing), Vishnu-smaranam (remembering), pāda-sevanam (visiting, helping), arcanam (worship of the idol), vandanam (prayer, Japa), dāsyam (deliver service), sakhyam (friendship), ātma-nivedanam (surrender); (see 7.5: 23-24).

- Also in six: 'Therefore unto You, o Best of the Worshipable, do I offer my obeisances with prayers and perform I worship, do I work for You, do I remember You, attend to Your refuge and do I always listen to the talks about You; how can without such devotional service unto You in all these six forms a person attain the bhakti that is there for the best of transcendence.' (S.B.: 7.9.50).

Bhāgavata-saptāha: public reading of the complete S'rīmad-Bhāgavatam for the time of a week, to the example of S'ukadeva  Gosvāmī who did so before king Parīkchit.

Bhāra: a measure of gold or silver. Four rice grains are called one guńjā; five guńjās, one pana; eight panas, one karsha; four karshas, one pala; and one hundred palas, one tulā. Twenty tulās make up one bhāra. Since there are about 3.700 grains of rice in an ounce, the bhāra is about 21.50 pounds.

Bhārata-varsha: ('the land of Bharata') the name of the region with mountain Meru located in the center of Ilāvrita-varsha, in the midst of all varshas or regions of living.

- The territory governed by Emperor Bharata so called since his rule. By some considered to be the name of the planet earth because vedic culture before Krishna was said to rule over the entire earth (see also: S B, canto 5 chapter 7-13).

- Name for the land that we now call India.

Bhāratī - See: Sarasvatī.

Bhārgava: relating to or coming from Bhrigu.

- There is a Kavi Bhārgava: another name of S'ukrācarya (see 4.1: 45).

Bhāva: affection and love for Krishna. Follows s'raddhā.

- The phase preceding the transcendental love for the Lord.

- To be well matured in bhakti means means to be matured in three stages of being emotional with Krishna:

- sthāyi-bhāva or primary love, the type of emotions of having a loving relationship with the Lord, called a direct rasa's. They are provoked by vibhāva: emotions raised by devotees, Krishna Himself and items connected to Him.
- anubhāva or consequent love, that what follows the relationship in the sense of specific emotions like laughing, crying, singing. There are also surging emotions called vyabhicāri-bhava that come and go like excitement, shyness and jubilation. These are emotions also socalled indirect
- mahābhāva or sattva-bhāva is the ecstatic love; emotions arising without any conscious intention when one is overwhelmed with blissful love. Symptoms: becoming stunned, fainting and faltering of voice.

Bhaga: the opulence of the Lord: intelligence (or knowledge), fame, power, riches, beauty and renunciation (ISKCON rhetoric; verse 3.24: 32).

- To a traditional verse:

'ais'varyasya samagrasya dharmasya yas'asah s'iyah
jńāna-vairāgyayos'caiva shannām bhagaitīranā.'

"Lordship, religiosity or righteousness, glory, affluence, spiritual knowledge and non-attachment are the opulences by which the Pleasure of Engagement, the battle (He gives), prevails."

- By mouth of Krishna Himself: Power, strength and dominion; beauty; fame; renunciation; fortune and enjoyment; and wisdom, humility and tolerance (11.16: 40).

- The six attributes of lordship (power), piety (renunciation), glory (fame), affluence (riches), wisdom (intelligence) and dispassion (knowledge by calm observation, cool) (S'astri C.L. Gosvāmī).

- The gracious Lord, the patron; sun and moon; good fortune, happiness, welfare, prosperity; love, affection, sexual passion, amorous pleasure, dalliance (MW-dictionary).

- The six opulences can be linked to the six darshana's: intelligence & knowledge (niyāyā); (scientific) power (vaishes'ika); beauty (samkhya); renunciation (yoga); fame (mimāmsa) riches (vedanta).

Bhagavad  Gītā: the song of God. The discourse of Krishna about devotion and yoga taken from the epic the Mahābhārat (see also the Bhagavad Gītā of Order and the Uddhava Gītā).

- The song of the Lord, an afterwards by avatāra  Vyāsa-deva recorded dialogue between Krishna and His devoted friend Arjuna. It expounds on the knowledge of the absolute truth, the natural and eternal state of being of all living beings, the material nature, the time and the activity. It constitutes the kernel of all Vedic texts and prepares for the study of the S'rīmad-Bhāgavatam (see further introduction to the Bhagavad Gītā).

- Story of Krishna about the purport of Yoga. It is divided in three parts: karma, bhakti and jńāna-yoga, or the unification of consciousness through labor, through selfless unmotivated service in worship and by means of spiritual knowledge.

Bhagavān (bhaga - fullness; van - possessing): the fortunate one, the worshipable one, the fulfilled, the one happy, the Supreme Lord characterized by the six opulences: riches, beauty, power, fame, knowledge and penance.

- Honorary title for the Supreme Personality. Next to the Vishnu-avatāra also used for S'iva, Vyāsa and Brahmā to express the meaning of their greatness.

- Highest level of self-realization after brahman  and paramātmā, (1.2: 11).

- His ānanda-aspect (see sat-cit-ānanda).

- the name Bhagavān is also used for others but of all who are entitled to that name is He first of all Vāsudeva (11.16: 29).

Bhajan: sacred songs in bhakti-yoga, devoted singing, usually to the service of one or more holy names (see also Krishna bhajan).

Bhajanānandi: bhaktas who do not preach, but do sing.

Bhakta: devotee (see also adhikāri), practitioner of bhakti-yoga, in three kinds:

- Ātmānandis - those who see solitude with Krishna and do not preach.

- Bhajanānandis - those who do sing and gather, but do not preach.

- Ghostyānandis - surrendered devotees living together taking the risks and load of preaching (see also vaishnava, yogi).

- Devotee of Lord Krishna, also the name for a beginner (see also uttama).

- Also conceived as of two kinds: sakama and akama: resp. those who still keep attachments and suffer the reactions thereof and those who detached and without ulterior motives are of service (Prabhupāda purport S.B. 6.9:40).

Bhakti: devotion, devotional service to Lord Krishna, love of God, in nine phases of emancipation (see bhāgavata  dharma, sādhana-bhakti and kevala-bhakti). See 7.9: 9 about its unique property (see 11.27).

- 'Bhakti may be considered in three stages, called gunī-bhūta, pradhānī-bhūta and kevala, and according to these stages there are three divisions, which are called jnāna, jnānamayī and rati, or premā: that is, simple knowledge, love mixed with knowledge, and pure love. By simple knowledge, one can perceive transcendental bliss without variety. This perception is called māna-bhūti. When one comes to the stage of jnānamayī, one realizes the transcendental opulences of the Personality of Godhead. But when one reaches pure love, one realizes the transcendental form of the Lord as Lord Krishna or Lord Rāma.' (Prabhupāda, 10.3: 32 purport).

Bhaktidevī: the divine female representative of devotional service.

Bhakti-rasāmrita-sindhu ('The nectar-sea of pure love'): the authoritative explanation, the masterpiece, of S'rīla  Rūpa  Gosvāmī, in which he in detail expounds on the practice of devotional service. A manual of bhakti written in Sanskrit in the sixteenth century.

Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Gosvāmī Mahārāja Prabhupāda (Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Thhākur): the spiritual master of S'rīS'rīmad A.C. Bhactivedanta Swami Prabhupāda (see also paramparā).

Bhactivedāntas: spiritualists who by execution of devotional service in full have realized the conclusion of the Vedas (see also vedanta and siddhanta).

Bhactivinoda  Thhākur, S'rīla (1838-1914) The spiritual master of S'rīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Thhākur. A great ācārya, teacher of the teacher of Swami  Prabhupāda, writer of many songs and books about Krishna. He restored the stature of Navadvīpa (in Bengal), as the birth place of Lord Caitanya and is often found on the individual shrines of the Vaishnavas as the founder of the modern method of adaptation to the innovations of society and the upgrading of devotional service.

Bhakti-yoga: the science of uniting the consciousness by devotion for the Supreme personality of Godhead Lord Krishna and His expansions (partial and plenary aspects or portions).

- The science of uniting the consciousness by devotion for Him (the Supreme Personality of Godhead) present in one's heart and in the heart of all living beings (of which bhakti operates as compassion, love for the fellow man, to be of mercy, karuna). Also called buddhi-yoga.

- The way of developing bhakti, love of God, in its purest form, thus without any fruitive intentions (karma) and without further theoretical speculation (jnāna).

- The last phase of yoga according the directions of the Bhagavad-gītā, consisting of surrendering oneself to the Supreme Lord, S'rī Krishna, according the nine forms of devotional service under the guidance of an ācārya (see bhāgavata  dharma).

- To connect oneself to the Lord by devotional service.

Bharadvāja: one of the seven sages of this manvantara (see rishi and 8.13: 5).

- From Bharata, the son of Dushmanta (see below), were by his three wives all the sons killed in fear of their possible inferiority, so that with him being frustrated the Maruts delivered him Bharadvāja. He was so called ('a burden to both') because he in the procreative act had objected to both his parents, Mamatā and Brihaspati, of giving him life from an illicit bond. His parents then both turned away from him (see 9.20: 35-39).


- The eldest son of Emperor Das'aratha and elder brother of Lord Rāma who kept his place on the throne while Rāma in exile was defeating Rāvana to free Sītā (9: 10 & 11).

- The Bharata born from the apsara S'akuntalā and king Dushmanta became an emperor of great fame and glory celebrated as a partial representation of the Lord on this earth in the dynasty of Puru. Frustrated in generating offspring, as his wives had killed his sons out of fear for their imperfection, performed he a marut-stoma sacrifice to beget sons whereupon the Maruts presented him Bharadvāja (see 9: 20 & 21).

- The son of Mahārāja Dushmanta, who in his youth gave up his kingdom and family. He made a lot of progress on the spiritual path, but later grew attached to a tame deer and had to take rebirth twice before he found liberation (see S.B. 5.7-14).

Bhaumāsura (Bhauma): son of the earth goddess, also called Naraka. He was the demon holding captive 16.000 princesses in Prāgyotisha-pura who were freed and taken in marriage by Krishna (see 10.59).

- A demon according the Vishnu-purāna born as a consequence of Lord Varāha touching mother earth lifting her up from the ocean (see 3.13: 31).

Bhava: S'iva as the Lord of existence (see e.g. S.B.: 3.4).

Bhayānaka: abhorrence as an indirect rasa.

Bhaya: fear, alarm, dread, apprehension; terror, dismay, danger, peril, distress ; danger from or to; sickness, disease.

- Lord Kapila: By no other than Me, the Supreme Lord and ruler as the original person, the Soul of all souls, can the terrible fear [of birth and death] be forsaken. (3.25: 41). To the one who discriminates between himself and another, having a different outlook to his body, I, as death, will cause great fear (see ahankara and 3.29: 26).

- Vasudeva to Nārada: 'O brahmin, nevertheless I inquire with you about the dharma of relating to the Supreme Lord, hearing of which with faith the one destined to die is freed from all fear... (11.2: 7)

- Lord Brahmā: No living entity in acceptance of a material body can escape His order; not by austerity and education, not by yoga, by one's strength, intelligence and for sure never either by one's opulence, the virtue of one's duty, by an external power or any personal endeavor. Directed by the unseen, do the living entities accept to be bound to a material body, for birth, death, sadness, illusion, constant fear, happiness and distress and for what they should do to their karma (see 5.1: 12-13).

- Swami Prabhupāda's original first name was Abhaya: the one fearless.

- The Lord as the protector of the devotees is called the sure shelter of freedom from fear (see Prahlāda and e.g. 5.24: 25).

- Lord Krishna: That will by which one never gives up the sleeping, fearing, lamenting, drooping and surely also the presuming, is of an unintelligent attitude in the mode of ignorance, o son of Prithā (B.G. 18.35). Intelligence, knowledge, composure, forgiveness, truthfulness, control over the senses and the mind, happiness, sorrow, birth, death, fear and fearlessness also, nonviolence, equilibrium, contentment, austerity, charity, fame and infamy are the different aspects to the living being that are arranged by Me (B.G. 10.4-5).

- Fear personifled as a Vasu, a son of Nirriti or Nikriti, a prince of the Yavanas and husband of the daughter of Time.

- The blossom of Trapa Bispinosa.

- A daughter of Time, K ā l a or Vaivasvata, and wife of the Rākshasa Heti.

Bheda: division, divide, breaking, separation, expanding, part; e.g. Vasudeva's presentation of fear in two situations: in this life and the next is called bheda (addendum Prabhupāda S.B. 10: 37-45).

Bībhatsa: 'the revolting one', a name of Arjuna as he who puts to flight, drives back the enemy.

Bhīma or Bhimasena ('fearful, tremendous'): one of the five sons of Pāndu.

- Also called Vrikodara: 'wolf-belly' for his enormous appetite.

Bhīshma ('the fearsome one'): a great devotee and one of the oldest members of the Kuru-dynasty. The grandfather. Stayed celibate because of a vow. Fought against Krishna and Arjuna in the camp of Duryodhana (see 1.9).

Bhrama: faults. One of the four weaknesses of the materially conditioned person (see also: illusions, deceit and wrong perception: pramāda, vipra-lipsa, karanāpātva, C.C Ādhi 2.86).

Bhrigu: the leader of the (seven or ten greatest) sages in the universe. Sages are sometimes called 'sons of Bhrigu' (see also rishis, maharishi).

Bhūtas: (living beings), the spirits, the dead, attendants of lord S'iva.

Bhū-mandala: the sphere of the entire earth that is divided in seven places of refuge or continents, see SB 3.13: 41, 4.12: 16, 5.1: 31 and 5.16: 1.

- The greater universe, SB 6.16: 48.

- 'Earth-circle', orbis terrarum, the terrestrial globe, the circumference or circuit of the earth.

Bibatsa: being terrified as an indirect rasa.

Bilvamangala Thhākur: great devotee, who wrote books with descriptions of the intimate pastimes of Lord Krishna.

Body, Spiritual: original form of the living being. It consists of the elements sat, cit and ānanda (sac-cid-ānanda), respectively: absolute eternity, knowledge and bliss (see also: svarūpa).

Body, gross or material-: The temporary "attire" that covers the bound soul (see also māyā and ahamkāra).

Brāhmana or brahma-jńānas: brahmin, priest, wise, intellectual. The highest class in the vedic society (see also varna).

- Someone who through his knowledge of the Vedas is capable of taking the lead in society; member of the first order of life.

- The eight brahminical qualities are those of the mode of supreme goodness (sattva), the purification (pavitra), the control over the mind (sama) and the senses (dama), the truthfulness (satya), the mercy (anugraha), the penance (tapasya) and the tolerance (titiksha), wherein the realization of God is found (see S.B: 5.5: 24, but also: 7.9: 10, footnote).

· Instruction for the brahmins in the performance of the very elaborate sacrificial rituals, brāhmanical explanation, explanations of sacred knowledge or doctrine; the brāhmana portion of the Veda of prose works attached to the Samhitās, as distinct from its mantra and upanishad portion, containing rules for the employment of the mantras or hymns at various sacrifices, with detailed explanations of their origin and meaning and numerous old legends; they (to Sāyana) contain two parts:

1. vidhi, rules or directions for rites ;
artha-vāda, explanatory remarks ;

Each Veda has its own Brāhmana.

Brahmā or Brahmājī: the Creator. Demigod (see deva). There is more than one Brahmā. He's the first living being originating from the navel of Vishnu (see also S'is'umāra  Cakra). Sits on Mount Meru in the middle of the lotus that is the creation.

- Aspect of Vishnu. Origin of Lord S'iva.

- The personal representative of the creative aspect of God; God as the Creator.

- The creative personality devoted to Krishna; creates a world of his own.

- Father of the Kumāras (see ūrdhva retasah) and all other living beings.

- The first being in the universe. He received from the Supreme Lord the power to create everything in the universe, of which he is the main ruler. He is part of a group of twelve mahājanas. Further is he the god ruling passion (rajo-guna).

- The first created living being and secondary creator of the material universe.

- The Unborn One or Self-born one. This name does Brahmā share with Krishna (see Aja).

- One of the four priests during a sacrifice, the chief brahmin (see also ritvik).

- First of all was with his shadow ignorance created in five varieties called tāmisra (forgetfulness), andha tāmisra (the illusion of death), tama (not knowing oneself), moha (the illusion of being matter) and mahāmoha (mad after matter, craving) (3.20: 18, compare 3.12:2).

Ook: Brahma: the impersonal spirit, the independent spiritual, the absolute, the Veda, the vedic sound, the Being, the Supreme, the Bhraman, the brahminical, the Absolute Truth, the reality of Brahmā, God.

Brahma-bhūta: position of being freed from material contamination. The one in this condition enjoys superhuman happiness and cares to be of service for the Supreme Lord (see also kosha).

Brahmacārī: bachelor, celibate, student of an ācārya. Two types: naishthhika, for life and upakurvāna, for a certain period of time (up to one's marriage).

- Married man taking heed of the vedic norms for being married.

- Pupil practicing celibacy under the guidance of a bona fide spiritual master.

Brahmacārya: continence, celibate (see also kumāra, urdhva  retasah).

- First ās'rama of spiritual life.

- Period of living celibate, self-restraint and study supervised by an authorized spiritual master.

- Student-phase, the first 20-25 years of life.

Brahma-jijnāsā: spiritual investigation into the nature of one's identity.

Brahmajyoti: the light of the creator, impersonal spiritual sphere, the enlightenment that on itself is rejected by the bhakta as a separate purpose. The blinding brilliance of the impersonal (see also ātmā-jyoti and 2.5: 11).

- The effulgence of the Supreme Lord, who is the source of the radiating light of the spiritual sky (see 10.28: 15).

Brahmaloka: the abode of Lord Brahmā (see also Ilāvrita-varsha and Meru).

Brahmā-muhūrta: period of one to one and a half hour before the (mean time of) sunrise. Time most suitable for meditation (see Japa).

Brahman: Krishna's impersonal sat-aspect. Is divided in parā and apara-brahman relating to having respectively the unseen and the visible of the creation. It is prakriti, purusha and kāla rolled in one (11.24: 19).

- The omnipresent effulgence in as well the material as the spiritual space known as light (see brahmājyoti).

- The full of the spirit, of the spiritual, in two: saguna-brahman, the world driven by the gunas and nirguna - brahman, the spiritual free from the influence of the modes of nature.

- The mindful, the spiritual, the spiritual soul (see vijnānam brahman) in an impersonal sense.

- As the Absolute Truth the Absolute or Supreme.

- Also indicating the Vedas (see s'abda-brahman).

- First level of realization preceding the one of paramātmā (1.2: 11).

- Name for the complete of matter (mahā-brahman, mahā-tattva).

- The vedic aphorism 'sarvam khalv idam brahma' says: 'Everything is Brahman'.

Brahmānanda: the joy derived from Brahman-realization.

Brahmarishi: title meaning 'wise amongst the brahmins'.

Brahma-samhitā: a very old scripture in Sanskrit, containing the prayers of Brahmā to Govinda; by Lord Caitanya discovered and empowered in a temple in South India (see the bhajan Govindam and/or this external link).

Brahmāstra: weapon used in the Vedic time, launched with the expression of a mantra that in its power can be compared to the present day nuclear arms.

- Kind of atomic weapon in a vedic way.

- A kind of atomic weapon producing a bright glare and burning everything. It is released with mantras after touching water. Highly destructive used as a last resort in Vedic warfare. The ultimate weapon in vedic times (see 1.7: 19 ; 1.8: 11 and 10.63: 13).

Brahma-sūtra: scripture of Vyāsadeva about the impersonal nature of God. Because the impersonal did not satisfy him urged Nārada him to write the S'rīmad Bhāgavatam. See also Vedānta - sūtra.

Brahma-teja: the prowess of the brahmins

Brihaspati: 'lord of prayer or devotion' the spiritual teacher of king Indra and the chief priest of the heavenly planets (see also B.G. 10: 24).

- Personification of piety and religion; the chief offerer of prayers and sacrifices, and therefore represented as the type of the priestly order, and the Purohita (the foremost priest) of the gods with whom he intercedes for men.

- In later times he is the god of wisdom and eloquence, to whom various works are ascribed; he is also regarded as a son of Angira (see also 9.14: 4-7).

- Husband of Tārā and father of Kaca, and sometimes identified with Vyāsa;

- In astronomy he is the regent of Jupiter and often identified with that planet.

Buddha: a Vishnu-avatāra from the beginning of Kali-yuga, who appeared to teach humanity non-violence and end all the killing of animals so as to pave the way towards enlightenment (see S.B. 1.3:24 en 2.7.37).

Buddhi: the intelligence, the sane mind; a product of a dynamic multifaceted conviction, selfrealization and knowledge of the soul.

- Spiritually the being open to togetherness, authority and holiness.

Buddhi-nasah: loss of intelligence through confusion in lust.

Buddhi-yoga: connectedness in God through intelligence. Next to karma-yoga used as a synonym for bhakti-yoga.

Buddhism: the teaching of Lord Buddha which to vaishnavas is too impersonal in proposing that the world and thus the other person would be illusion (see also mayavada).

- The teaching, but not the Lord, mainly denounced in the Bhāgavatam as being māyāvāda:

- 'as (the Buddha) will He by speculative arguments bewilder the ones unfit to perform the vedic sacrifices (11.4: 22)'.

- 'the bewilderer of the demoniac descendants of Diti and Dānu' (10.40: 22).

- 'To those well situated on the path of the Vedas envious with the divine who unseen roam the worlds by inventions of Maya (a demon) and who are destructive of the bewildered mind, He dresses Himself attractively (as the Buddha) speaking mainly of moral guidelines ' (2.7: 37).

- 'to delude the ones envious with the theists' (1.3: 24).

- 'who leads the ones who are illusioned' (6.8: 19).



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